U.S. presidential election, 1836



Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Van Buren and Johnson or Smith, Light Purple denotes those won by Harrison and Granger or Tyler, Purple denotes those won by White/Tyler, Light Pink denotes those won by Webster/Granger, and Bluish Green denotes those won by Magnum/Tyler. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

< 1832  1840 >
United States presidential election, 1836
3 November - 7 December 1836
PartyDemocratic PartyWestern Whig PartySouthern Whig Party
Home StateNew YorkOhioTennessee
Running mateRichard Mentor Johnson, William SmithFrancis P. Granger, John TylerJohn Tyler
Electoral Vote1707326
States Carried1572
Popular Vote764,176550,816146,107
Percentage50.8%36.6%9.7%
PartyNew England Whig PartySouth Carolina Whig Party
Home StateMassachusettsNorth Carolina
Running mateFrancis P. GrangerJohn Tyler
Electoral Vote1411
States Carried11
Popular Vote41,201(b)
Percentage2.7%—%
Before Election
Andrew Jackson
Democratic Party

After Election
Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party



The United States presidential election of 1836 is predominantly remembered for three reasons:
  1. It was the last election until 1988 to result in the elevation of an incumbent Vice President to the nation's highest office.
  2. It was the only race in which a major political party intentionally ran several presidential candidates. The Whigs ran three different candidates in different regions of the country, hoping that each would be popular enough to defeat Democratic standard-bearer Martin Van Buren in their respective areas. The House of Representatives could then decide between the competing Whig candidates. This strategy failed: Van Buren won a majority of the electoral vote and became President.
  3. This election is the first (and to date only) time in which a Vice Presidential election was thrown into the Senate.

Nominations

Democratic Party nomination

Incumbent president Andrew Jackson decided to retire after two terms and supported his Vice President, Martin Van Buren. Although Southerners disliked the New Yorker Van Buren as well as his intended running mate, Colonel Richard Mentor Johnson of Kentucky, Jackson secured the nomination at a meeting in Baltimore, at the 1835 Democratic National Convention.

Whig nomination

The National Republicans joined together with dissident Democrats, including those angered by Jackson's opposition to States' Rights, to form the Whig Party. Unable to agree on a single candidate, they ran different candidates in each section of the country to deny Van Buren a majority. Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster ran in New England, popular former general William Henry Harrison in the West, and Tennessee Senator Hugh Lawson White, a States' Rights supporter, in the South.

General election

Campaign

The Whigs attacked Van Buren on all sides, even disrupting the Senate where he presided. Harrison was the most effective of his opponents, but Van Buren's superior party organization carried the day, earning him a majority.

Disputes

A dispute similar to that of Indiana in 1817 and Missouri in 1821 arose during the counting of the electoral votes. Michigan had only become a state on January 26, 1837 and had cast its electoral votes for president before that date. Anticipating a challenge to the results Congress resolved on February 4, 1837 that during the counting four days later the final tally would be read twice, once with Michigan and once without Michigan. The counting proceeded in accordance with the resolution. The dispute had no bearing on the final result: either way Van Buren was elected and either way no one had a majority for Vice President.[1]

Results

Virginia's electors refused to vote for Van Buren's running mate, Richard Mentor Johnson, leaving him one vote short of the 148-vote majority required to elect. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the Senate would decide between the top two vote-getters, deciding on Johnson over Francis Granger.

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote(a) Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
Martin Van BurenDemocraticNew York764,17650.8%170
William Henry HarrisonWhigOhio550,81636.6%73
Hugh Lawson WhiteWhigTennessee146,1079.7%26
Daniel WebsterWhigMassachusetts41,2012.7%14
Willie Person MangumWhigNorth Carolina(b)11
Other1,2340.1%0
Total1,503,534100.0%294
Needed to win148
Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1836 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 27, 2005).

Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005).

(a) The popular vote figures exclude South Carolina where the Electors were chosen by the state legislature rather than by popular vote.
(b) Mangum received his electoral votes from South Carolina where the Electors were chosen by the state legislatures rather than by popular vote.

Vice Presidential Candidate Party State Electoral Vote
Richard Mentor JohnsonDemocraticKentucky147
Francis P. GrangerWhigNew York77
John TylerWhigVirginia47
William SmithDemocraticSouth Carolina23
Total294
Needed to win148
Source: Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005).

Breakdown by ticket

Presidential Candidate Running Mate Electoral Vote
Martin Van BurenRichard Mentor Johnson147
William Henry HarrisonFrancis P. Granger63
Hugh Lawson WhiteJohn Tyler26
Martin Van BurenWilliam Smith23
Daniel WebsterFrancis P. Granger14
Willie Person MangumJohn Tyler11
William Henry HarrisonJohn Tyler10

Contingent election

The Senate was required to choose which of Richard Johnson and Francis Granger would be the next Vice President. Johnson was elected easily in a single ballot.

for Richard M. Johnson for Francis P. Granger

Electoral college selection

Method of choosing Electors State(s)
each Elector appointed by state legislatureSouth Carolina
each Elector chosen by voters statewide(all other states)

See also

  • History of the United States (1789-1849)

Notes

1. ^ United States Congress (1837). Senate Journal, 24th Congress, 2nd Session, February 4, 203–204. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. 

References

Navigation

The United States presidential election of 1832 saw incumbent President Andrew Jackson, candidate of the Democratic Party, easily win reelection against Henry Clay of Kentucky.
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The United States presidential election of 1840 saw President Martin Van Buren fight for re-election against an economic depression and a Whig Party unified for the first time behind war hero William Henry Harrison.
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United States of America

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The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy.
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The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy.
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State of New York

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Nickname(s): The Empire State
Motto(s): Excelsior!

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State of Ohio

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"Birthplace of Aviation" "The Heart Of It All"

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State of Tennessee

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Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. A resident of Scott County, Kentucky, Johnson served as a Representative and Senator from Kentucky, and in the
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In office
December 4, 1816 – March 3, 1823
November 29, 1826 – March 3, 1831
Preceded by
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Born September 6 1762(1762--)
North Carolina, U.S.
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Francis Granger (December 1, 1792 – August 31, 1868) was a Representative from New York. He was the son of Gideon Granger, another Postmaster General, and the first cousin of Amos P. Granger.
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John Tyler, Jr. (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862) was the tenth (1841-1845) President of the United States. A long-time Democrat-Republican, he was elected Vice President on the Whig ticket and on becoming president in 1841, broke with that party.
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John Tyler, Jr. (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862) was the tenth (1841-1845) President of the United States. A long-time Democrat-Republican, he was elected Vice President on the Whig ticket and on becoming president in 1841, broke with that party.
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''Nickname(s): Bay State State Bird = Black-capped Chickadee''
''Motto(s): Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem (Latin: By the sword she seeks peace under liberty)''


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The State of North Carolina

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Nickname(s): Tar Heel State; Old North State;
The Rip Van Winkle State

''Motto(s): Esse quam videri (Latin: To be, rather than to seem)''

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Francis Granger (December 1, 1792 – August 31, 1868) was a Representative from New York. He was the son of Gideon Granger, another Postmaster General, and the first cousin of Amos P. Granger.
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John Tyler, Jr. (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862) was the tenth (1841-1845) President of the United States. A long-time Democrat-Republican, he was elected Vice President on the Whig ticket and on becoming president in 1841, broke with that party.
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Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was the 7th President of the United States (1829–1837). He was also military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), a founder of the modern Democratic Party, and
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Martin Van Buren (December 5 1782 – July 24 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. Before his presidency he served as the eighth Vice President (1833-1837) and the 10th Secretary of State under Andrew Jackson.
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Martin Van Buren (December 5 1782 – July 24 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. Before his presidency he served as the eighth Vice President (1833-1837) and the 10th Secretary of State under Andrew Jackson.
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