Ukrainian Latin alphabet

A Latin alphabet for the Ukrainian language has been proposed or imposed several times in history, but has never challenged the conventional Cyrillic Ukrainian alphabet. The Ukrainian literary language has been written with the Cyrillic alphabet, in a tradition going back to the eighth-century introduction of Christianity and the Old Church Slavonic language to Kievan Rus’. Proposals for Latinization, if not imposed for outright political reasons, have always been politically charged, and have never been generally accepted. Although some proposals to create an official Latin alphabet for Ukrainian language have been expressed lately by national intelligentsia. Technically, most have resembled the linguistically related Polish and Czech alphabets.

While superficially similar to a Latin alphabet, transliteration of Ukrainian from Cyrillic into the Latin alphabet (or romanization) is usually not intended for native speakers, and may be designed for certain academic requirements or technical constraints. See romanization of Ukrainian.

In Ukrainian: Ukrayins’ka Latynka or Latynytsia (Українська Латинка, Латиниця). Polish-influenced Latynka was known as Abecadło (Абецадло).

History

Ukrainian was occasionally written in the Latin alphabet as far back as the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in publications using the Polish and Czech alphabets. In the nineteenth century, there were attempts to introduce the Latin alphabet into Ukrainian writing, by Josyp Lozynskyj, a Ukrainian scholar and priest from Ľviv (Josyp Łozynski Ivanovyč, Ruskoje wesile, 1834), Tomasz Padura, and other Polish-Ukrainian romantic poets.

The use of the Latin alphabet for Ukrainian was promoted by authorities in Galicia under the Austrian Habsburg Empire. Franc Miklošič developed a Latin alphabet for Ukrainian in 1852, based on the Polish and Czech alphabets (adopting Czech č, š, ž, dž, ď, ť, Polish ś, ź, ć, ń,, and ľ following the same pattern). This initiative was taken into interest by Czech politician Josef Jireček, who managed to gain support for the project in the Imperial Ministry of Interior. As part of a Polonization campaign in Galicia during the period of neo-absolutist rule after 1849, Viceroy Agenor Gołuchowski attempted to impose this Latin alphabet on Ukrainian publications in 1859. This started a fierce publicly-debated "War of the Alphabets", and in the end the Latin alphabet was rejected. Ukrainian books continued to be published in Cyrillic, while the Latin alphabet was used in special editions "for those who read Polish only" in Galicia, Podlachia, and the Kholm region.

A Latin alphabet for Ukrainian publications was also imposed in Romanian Bessarabia, Bukovina and Dobrudja. It was also used by immigrants from these regions in the United States.

In Ukraine under the Russian Empire, Mykhaylo Drahomanov promoted a purely phonemic Cyrillic alphabet (the Drahomanivka) including the Latin letter j in 1876, replacing the digraphs я, є, ю, ї with ја, је, ју, јі. The Ems Ukaz banning Ukrainian-language publication doomed this reform to obscurity.

In Soviet Ukraine, during the 1927 orthographical conference in Kharkiv, linguists M. Johansen, B. Tkačenko, and M. Nakonečnyj proposed the application of the more "international" Latin alphabet to Ukrainian, but the idea was opposed by Soviet government representatives. Later, Vasyl Simovych was a proponent of the Latin alphabet.

Łatynka

Some letters borrowed from Polish and Czech were used in the Ukrainian Łatynka as stated above, which also has a close resemblance to the Belarusian Łacinka. Although never broadly accepted, it was used mostly by Ukrainians living in territories near Poland. The orthography was explained in Łatynycia, a western Ukrainian publication of the 1900s.

The Ukrainian Latin alphabet
(a western Ukrainian publication, c.1900s)
AaBbCcĆcCzczDdĎdEeFfGg
А?Б?Ц?Цьц?Ч?Д?Дьд?Е?Ф?Ґ?
HhIiJjKkLlŁlMmNnŃnOo
Г?І?Й?К?Льл?Л?М?Н?Ньн?О?
PpRrŔrSsŚsSzszTtŤtUuWw
П?Р?Рьр?С?Сьс?Ш?Т?Тьт?У?В?
YyZzŹzŽ?
И?З?Зьз?Ж?


Digraphs
  • я, є, ю, ї = ja, je, ju, ji
  • x = ch, as used in Polish''

Sample text

The Introduction of Josyp Łozynśkyj's Ruskoje Wesile ('Ruthenian Wedding', 1834):

Perédmowa


W tym opysi skazuju, jaksia wesile po sełach mežy prostym ruskim ludom widprawlaje. Ne mohu jednako utrymowaty, jakoby toj sposób wesile widprawlaty wsiude newidminnibyłzacho wanym; bo hdenekodyj szczoś dodajut, hdeindeszczoś wypuskajut, a znowu hdeinde szczos widminiajut. Syła w mojej syli było, starał-jemsia w rozmaitych misciach obradki i pisny ruskoho wesila póznaty i pérekonał-jemsia že prynajmni szczo do hołownych obradkiw i pisnéj wsiude tymže samym sposobom wesilesia widprawlaje. I toj sposób opysałjem w nynisjszуj knyžoczci dodajuczy jednako hdenekodyj i miscowyi widminy. Moim najperszym i najbohatszym a nawet’ i nihdy newyczerpanym źridłom, z kotorohom tyi widomosty czerpał, było dopytowanie po sełach tych ludej, kotryi czasto na wesilach bywały i wesilnyi ur’ady pistowały. Nykotorych obradkiw był jem sam okozritelnym świdkom.

References

  • Chornovol, Ihor (2001), "Latynka v ukrayins’komu pravopysi: retrospektyva i perspektyva" (The Latin alphabet in Ukrainian orthography: retrospective and perspective), in Ji, no 23. (in Ukrainian, PDF)
  • Simovyč, V., & J.B. Rudnyckyj ([1963] 1982). "The History of Ukrainian Orthography", in Volodymyr Kubijovyč, ed.: Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopædia, Vol. 1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pages 517–18. ISBN 0-8020-3105-6. 
Contemporary literature concerning the Alphabet Wars:
  • Ivan Franko (1836). Przemyśl.
  • Ivan Franko. Азбучна війна в Галичині 1859 - 'The Alphabet War in Galicia 1859'.
  • J. Łewićki (1834). Review of the Introduction of the Polish Alphabet to Ruthenian Writing.
  • Josyp Lozynskyj (1834). "On the Introduction of the Polish Alphabet to Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Writing", «О wprowadzeniu abecadła polskiego do pismiennictwa ruskiego».
  • M. Šaškevyč. Азбука і abecadło.

See also

External links

Ukrainian alphabet

Sister systems Ukrainian Latin
Rusyn
Russian
Belarusian
Unicode range subset of Cyrillic (U+0400...U+04F0)
ISO 15924 Cyrl, 220

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
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A literary language is a register of a language that is used in literary writing. This may also include liturgical writing. The difference between literary and non-literary (vernacular) forms is more marked in some languages than in others.
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Cyrillic alphabet

Sister systems Latin alphabet
Coptic alphabet
Armenian
Unicode range U+0400 to U+052F
ISO 15924 Cyrl

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
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Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and
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intelligentsia (from Russian: интеллигенция from Latin: intelligentia) is a social class of people engaged in complex mental and creative labor directed to the development and dissemination of
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The Czech alphabet is the alphabet used to write in the Czech language. There is a normal and an extended alphabet, one including diacritical signs and the other not including them. As used by the Czechs, the "Czech alphabet" will invariably refer to the standard one.
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Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. It is also the system of rules for that practice.

Technically, from a linguistic point of view, it is a mapping from one system of writing into another.
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romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system (or none).
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Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, a variation of Cyrillic.
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Ukrainian}}} 
Official status
Official language of:  Ukraine
Transnistria (Moldova)
Regulated by: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Language codes
ISO 639-1: uk
ISO 639-2: ukr
ISO 639-3: ukr  


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The Czech alphabet is the alphabet used to write in the Czech language. There is a normal and an extended alphabet, one including diacritical signs and the other not including them. As used by the Czechs, the "Czech alphabet" will invariably refer to the standard one.
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Polonization (Polish: polonizacja)[2] is the acquisition or imposition of elements of Polish culture, especially Polish language, as experienced in some historic periods by non-Polish populations of territories controlled
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Ancient times:
  • Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
  • Yamna culture
  • Catacomb culture
  • Cimmeria
  • Taurica
  • Scythia
  • Sarmatia
  • Zarubintsy culture
  • Cherniakhov culture
  • Hunnic Empire
Medieval era:
  • Early East Slavs

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The Habsburg Monarchy included the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1745 and 1867/1918. The capital was Vienna.
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Polonization (Polish: polonizacja)[2] is the acquisition or imposition of elements of Polish culture, especially Polish language, as experienced in some historic periods by non-Polish populations of territories controlled
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Podlachia, Podlesia, or Podlasie is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland and western Belarus. It is located between the Biebrza River in the north and its natural continuation to the south — the Polesie area.
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Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian,
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Bukovina (Ukrainian: Буковина, Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina
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Dobruja, or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Добруджа—transliterated Dobrudzha—in Bulgarian, Dobruca
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Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian: Pоссiйская Имперiя, Modern Russian: Российская империя,
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Mykhailo Petrovych Drahomanov (August 30, 1841, Hadiach – July 2, 1895, Sofia; Ukrainian: Михайло Петрович
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Cyrillic alphabet

Sister systems Latin alphabet
Coptic alphabet
Armenian
Unicode range U+0400 to U+052F
ISO 15924 Cyrl

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
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Drahomanivka was a proposed reform of the Ukrainian alphabet and orthography, promoted by Mykhailo Drahomanov. This orthography was used in a few publications and in Drahomanov's correspondence, but due to cultural resistance and political persecution it was never able to catch on.
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The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase (Russian: Эмский указ, Emskiy ukaz; Ukrainian:
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The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic a.k.a. Uk(r)SSR was a socialist state in Ukraine which became one of the fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union.
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Kharkiv
Харкі?

Kharkiv's Freedom Square with the Derzhprom building.

Flag
Coat of arms
Map of Ukraine with Kharkiv highlighted.
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Polish}}} 
Writing system: Latin (Polish variant) 
Official status
Official language of:  European Union
 European Union
Regulated by: Polish Language Council
Language codes
ISO 639-1: pl
ISO 639-2: pol
ISO 639-3:
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Ruthenian may refer to:
  • Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe
  • Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia
  • Ruthenian Catholic Church, the sui iuris particular church united to the Bishop of Rome and the Roman Catholic Church

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Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, a variation of Cyrillic.
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Euro-Ukrainian is a proposed Latin Alphabet for Ukrainian. The Latynka is not officially used. Only in other countries do Diaspora Ukrainians rarely use the Latin Alphabet.
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