United States presidential election, 1816



Presidential election results map. Green denotes states won by Monroe, Brown denotes states won by King. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

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United States presidential election, 1816
1816
PartyFederalist Party
Home StateVirginiaNew York
Running mateDaniel D. TompkinsJohn Eager Howard, James Ross, John Marshall, Robert Goodloe Harper
Electoral Vote18334
States Carried163
Popular Vote76,59234,740
Percentage68.2%30.9%
Before Election
James Madison

After Election
James Monroe

The United States presidential election of 1816 came at the end of the two-term presidency of Democratic-Republican James Madison. With the opposition Federalist Party in collapse, Madison's Secretary of State, James Monroe, was seen by many as pre-ordained to succeed him into the presidency. Indeed, Monroe won the electoral college by the wide margin of 183 to 34.

Background

The previous four years were dominated by the War of 1812. While it had not ended in victory, the peace was nonetheless satisfactory to the American people, and the Democratic-Republicans received the credit for its prosecution. The Federalists had been discredited by their opposition to the war and talk of secession by New England. Furthermore, President Madison had adopted such Federalist policies as a national bank and protective tariffs, which would give the Federalists few issues to campaign on.

Nominations

The Democratic-Republican caucus nominated Secretary of State James Monroe and New York Governor Daniel D. Tompkins. The Federalist caucus did not even bother to make a formal nomination, although many Federalists supported New York Senator Rufus King, who had been defeated twice before as the Federalist vice presidential candidate.

General election

Disputes

On February 12, 1817, the House and Senate met in joint session to count the electoral votes for President and Vice President. The count proceeded without incident until the roll came to the last state to be counted, Indiana. At that point, Representative John W. Taylor of New York objected to the counting of Indiana's votes. The Senate withdrew, and then the House deliberated upon Taylor's objection. To understand Taylor's objection, however, the reader will need some background:

Congress had passed an enabling act for the Territory of Indiana on April 19, 1816. It authorized the Territory to hold a constitutional convention for forming a state government and stated that the state, once formed, would be admitted to the United States. On December 11, 1816, Congress passed a joint resolution stating that Indiana had formed a state constitution on June 29, 1816, which had met the conditions of the enabling act and that Indiana was therefore admitted into the Union.

According to the Constitution, the casting of ballots by the Electoral College had to take place on a single day, and federal statute had set that day to be December 4, 1816. Taylor thus contended that the electoral votes had been cast by the Territory of Indiana, not the State of Indiana, and were thus void. Other representatives contradicted Taylor, asserting that the joint resolution merely recognized that Indiana had already joined the Union by the act of forming a state constitution and government. These representatives pointed out that both the House and Senate had seated members from Indiana who had been elected prior to the joint resolution, which would have been unconstitutional had Indiana not been a state at the time of their election.

Representative Samuel D. Ingham then moved that the question be postponed indefinitely. The House agreed almost unanimously, and the Senate was brought back in to count the electoral votes from Indiana.

References

U.S. Congressional Documents
* 30 Annals of Cong. 944949 (1817)
* Act of April 19, 1816, ch. 57, 3 Stat. 289
* Resolution of December 11, 1816, res. 1, 3 Stat. 399
Web
* Official Name and Status History of the several States and U.S. Territories, an Explanation. The Green Papers (2001). Retrieved on December 18, 2005.

Results

The result of this election was foreordained the moment that the Democratic-Republican caucus nominated Monroe and Tompkins. When the votes were counted, Monroe had won all but three of the nineteen states.

Each of the three states that were won by King voted for a different person for Vice President. Massachusetts electors voted for former United States Senator (and future Governor) John E. Howard of Maryland. Delaware chose a different Marylander, sitting United States Senator Robert G. Harper. Connecticut split its vote between James Ross of Pennsylvania and Chief Justice John Marshall.

Maryland did not choose its electors as a slate; rather, it divided itself into electoral districts, with each district choosing one elector. Two of Maryland's eleven districts were won by Federalist electors. However, these electors did not vote for King or for a Federalist vice president, instead casting blank votes as a protest, and thus resulted in Monroe winning the votes through all the Maryland state electors.

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote(a), (b) Electoral Vote(c) Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote(c)
Count Percentage
James MonroeDemocratic-RepublicanVirginia76,59268.2%183Daniel D. TompkinsNew York183
Rufus KingFederalistNew York34,74030.9%34John Eager HowardMaryland22
James RossPennsylvania5
John MarshallVirginia4
Robert Goodloe HarperMaryland3
(unpledged electors)(none)(n/a)1,0380.9%0(n/a)(n/a)0
Total112,370100.0%217Total217
Needed to win109Needed to win109
Source (Popular Vote): U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 9, 2006).

Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 30, 2005).

(a) Only 10 of the 19 states chose electors by popular vote.
(b) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.
(c) One Elector from Delaware and three Electors from Maryland did not vote.

Electoral college selection

Method of choosing Electors State(s)
each Elector appointed by state legislatureConnecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Indiana
Louisiana
Massachusetts
New York
South Carolina
Vermont
each Elector chosen by voters statewideNew Hampshire
New Jersey
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Virginia
state is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district by the voters of that districtKentucky
Maryland
Tennessee

See also

  • History of the United States (1789-1849)

References

External Links

Navigation

The United States presidential election of 1812 took place in the shadow of the War of 1812. It featured an intriguing competition between incumbent Democratic-Republican President James Madison and a dissident Democratic-Republican, DeWitt Clinton, nephew of Madison's late
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The Democratic-Republican Party, also known as the Republican Party (not similar to the present-day Republican Party), was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792.
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The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. The Federalists controlled the federal government until 1801.
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Commonwealth of Virginia

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State of New York

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Daniel D. Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States.

Name

There is evidence that Daniel Tompkins's middle name was Decius.
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John Eager Howard (June 4, 1752 - October 12, 1827) was an American soldier and politician from Maryland. He was born in and died in Baltimore County. Howard County, Maryland, is named for him.

Howard was an Episcopalian and a Brother of a Baltimore lodge of Freemasonry.
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James Ross (July 12, 1762 – November 27, 1847) was a lawyer and senator from Pennsylvania from 1794 to 1803.

Born near Delta, York County, Pennsylvania, he was the son of Joseph and Jane (Graham) Ross.
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John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power.
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Robert Goodloe Harper (January 1765 – January 14, 1825), a Federalist, was a member of the United States Senate from Maryland, serving from January 1816 until his resignation in December of the same year.
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James Madison (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
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The Democratic-Republican Party, also known as the Republican Party (not similar to the present-day Republican Party), was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792.
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James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825), and the fourth Virginian to hold the office. Monroe, a close ally of Thomas Jefferson, was a diplomat who supported the French Revolution.
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The Democratic-Republican Party, also known as the Republican Party (not similar to the present-day Republican Party), was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792.
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The Democratic-Republican Party, also known as the Republican Party (not similar to the present-day Republican Party), was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792.
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James Madison (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
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The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. The Federalists controlled the federal government until 1801.
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James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825), and the fourth Virginian to hold the office. Monroe, a close ally of Thomas Jefferson, was a diplomat who supported the French Revolution.
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United States
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Indigenous peoples
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Hartford Convention was an event in 1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed.
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The Congressional nominating caucus is the name for informal meetings in which American congressmen would agree on who to nominate for the Presidency and Vice Presidency from their political party. This system started in 1796 after George Washington stepped down as President.
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State of New York

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Nickname(s): The Empire State
Motto(s): Excelsior!

Official language(s) None

Capital Albany
Largest city New York City

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Daniel D. Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States.

Name

There is evidence that Daniel Tompkins's middle name was Decius.
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In office
July 16, 1789 – May, 1796
March 4, 1813 – March 3, 1825
Preceded by
Succeeded by



Born March 24, 1755
Scarborough, Massachusetts (now Maine), USA
Died March 29 1827 (aged -1755)
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February 12 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

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