Urums

Part of the series on
Greeks
Greek culture
Art Cinema Cuisine
Dance Dress Literature
Music Philosophy Religion
Sport Television
By region or country
(including the diaspora)

Greece Cyprus
Albania Argentina Armenia
Australia Belgium
Bulgaria Brazil Canada
Egypt France FYROM
Georgia Germany Hungary
Italy Kazakhstan Romania
Russia South Africa Sweden
Turkey Ukraine Uzbekistan
United Kingdom United States
Subgroups
Antiochian Greeks Aromanians
Arvanites Cappadocian Greeks
Greek Cypriots Greek Muslims
Hayhurums Kalash Karamanlides
Macedonians Maniots Meglenites
Pontic Greeks Romaniotes Sarakatsani
Slavophone Greeks Tsakonians Urums
Religion
Greek Orthodox Church
Islam Judaism Polytheism
Roman Catholicism
Languages and dialects
Greek
Calabrian Greek Cappadocian Greek
Cretan Greek Cypriot Greek
Griko Pontic Greek
Tsakonian Yevanic
Meglenitic Aromanian
Arvanitika Slavika
Karamanlidika Urum
Kalash
History
Persecution
Anti-Hellenism Chios massacre
Pontic Greek Genocide
Asia Minor Catastrophe
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
    [ e]
Urums, singular Urum IPA: [u'rum] (Greek: Ουρούμ Urúm, Turkish: Urum, Crimean Tatar: Urum) is a broad historical term that was used by some Turkic-speaking peoples (Turks, Crimean Tatars) to define Greeks who lived in Muslim states, particularly in the Ottoman Empire and Crimea. In contemporary ethnography, the term Urum (or Urum Greek) applies only to Turkic-speaking Greek population.

Ethnonym

The term Urum is derived from the Arabic word رُّومُ (rūm), meaning Roman and subsequently Byzantine (Eastern Roman) and Greek (see: Rûm). Since words beginning in [r] were not typical for Turkic languages, earlier speakers would add an extra vowel in order to facilitate the pronunciation. In modern Turkish, the Urum spelling, despite being still used by some, is considered obsolete and is replaced by the spelling Rum.

The term is presently used by the following sub-ethnic groups of Greeks as a way of ethnic self-identification:

North Azovian Urums

Historically Greeks of Crimea (and later of the adjacent Azovian region; present-day Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine) were represented by two groups: the Hellenic-speaking Romaioi and the Turkic-speaking Urums (also called Graeco-Tatars). Both groups populated the region for many centuries (they consisted of both the descendants of the 4th century BC – 4th century AD colonizers and those who immigrated from Anatolia at various times), however the latter underwent social and cultural processes, which led to them adopting Crimean Tatar as a mother tongue. In 1777, after the annexation of Crimea by Russia, Catherine the Great ordered all Greeks from the peninsula to settle in North Azov, and they have been known as the North Azovian Greeks (приазовские грекиpriazovskie greki) henceforth. Some linguists believe that the dialect spoken by the North Azovian Urums differs from the common Crimean Tatar language on a more than just dialectical level and therefore constitutes a separate language unit within the Kypchak language sub-group (see: Urum language).

Urums practice Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Throughout history, they represented an isolated cultural group and rarely settled in towns populated by the Romaioi, despite sharing Greek heritage with them.[1] Unlike Greek, Urum has never been a language of secondary education in Ukraine. Turkologist Nikolai Baskakov estimated that by 1969, 60,000 people spoke Urum as a native language. According to the All-Ukrainian Population Census of 2001, only 112 of the Donetsk Oblast's 77,516 Greeks listed languages other than Greek, Ukrainian and Russian as their mother tongue.[2]

Tsalka Urums

Very little is known about this sub-ethnic group. They are sometimes referred to as the Trialeti Greeks or the Transcaucasian Turcophone Greeks. Pontian Greeks call them Τσαλκαλιδείς (Tsalkalideis); a name that refers to the Georgian town, where Urums once made up the largest ethnic community.

From the 18th to the early 20th century the Caucasus experienced mass migrations of Greeks from the Ottoman Empire, mainly from the region of Pontus. Many Pontian Greeks spoke Turkish either as part of their Greek-Turkish bilingua, or as a mother tongue due to linguistic assimilation processes that isolated groups of the Anatolian Greeks were exposed to. According to Andrei Popov, throughout the 19th century hundreds of Turkish-speaking Greek Orthodox families from Erzurum, Gümüşhane and Artvin moved to Southern Russia and settled on the Tsalka plateau, in present-day Georgia.[3] During the Soviet era they populated over 20 villages in Georgia's Tsalka, Dmanisi, Tetritsq'aro, Marneuli, and Akhaltsikhe regions. In 1926, there were 24,000 Greeks living in Tiflis and the neighbouring area with 20,000 of them being Turcophone.[4]

The dialect spoken by the Tsalka Urums is similar to many other Central Anatolian dialects of Turkish. However some linguists, like Nikolai Baksakov, classify it as a separate Oghuz language due to differences in phonetics, vocabulary and grammar.[5] Present-day Urum Turkish is also thought by some to be phonetically closer to Azeri than to the literary Turkish, which leads them to believe that it is rather a dialect of Azeri.[6] Late Soviet censuses also showed Azeri as the mother tongue of the Tsalka Urums, however this may have been done simply due to the Soviets' somewhat unfavourable attitude towards Turkish culture. No secondary education in Urum Turkish has been available; its speakers attend schools where subjects are taught in Russian or Azeri.

The Tsalka Urums themselves call their language bizimce (Turkish for our language / talk). With the popularization of the Russian language, many experienced linguistic assimilation and adapted to Russian. Also starting from the 1980s, some sense of a cultural revival has been observed among the Turcophone Greeks. Historian Airat Aklaev's research showed that 36% of them considered Greek their mother tongue despite their lack of knowledge of that language. 96% expressed their desire to learn Greek.[7]

In comparison with the Hellenophone Greeks of Georgia, the Tsalka Urums were less exposed to emigration after the fall of the Soviet Union, hence nowadays they constitute the majority of the country's Greek population. Nevertheless some migration did take place, which is why Greeks are no longer the largest ethnic group in Tsalka. Between 1989 and 2002 their numbers within the region went down from 35,000 to 3,000. Many emigrated to Greece and to the Krasnodar Krai, Russia (cities of Krasnodar, Abinsk, Sochi, and Gelendzhik).

See also

References

1. ^ Ethnolinguistic Situation by Elena Perekhvalskaya (in Russian). Retrieved 2 October, 2006
2. ^ The All-Ukrainian Population Census of 2001: The distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue. Retrieved 2 October, 2006
3. ^ Popov, Andrei. Pontian Greeks. Krasnodar: Studia Pontocaucasica, 1997. Retrieved 17 July, 2005
4. ^ Volkova, Natalya. The Greeks of the Caucasus. Krasnodar: Studia Pontocaucasica, 1997. Retrieved 2 October, 2005
5. ^ Turkic Languages. Classification by Nikolai Baksakov. 1969. Retrieved 2 October, 2006
6. ^ Azerbaijanis in Georgia. Retrieved 2 October, 2006
7. ^ Aklaev, Airat. Ethnolinguistic Situation and Ethnic Self-Identification Features of the Georgian Greeks. Soviet Ethnography, #5, 1988. Retrieved 2 October, 2006
17,000,000
Regions with significant populations
 Greece [1]
 United States
 Cyprus
..... Click the link for more information.
The Culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginnings in the Mycenaean and Minoan Civilizations, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its Greek Eastern successor the Byzantine Empire.
..... Click the link for more information.
Byzantine art is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the Eastern Roman Empire from about the 5th century until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. (The Roman Empire during this period is conventionally known as the Byzantine Empire.
..... Click the link for more information.
Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda  Aruba  Bahamas  Barbados  Dominican Republic  Guadeloupe  Haiti  Jamaica  Martinique  Puerto Rico  Trinidad and Tobago  Latin America:
..... Click the link for more information.
Greek cuisine is the cuisine of Greece and of the Greeks . It is typical of Mediterranean cuisine[] accompanied by commonalities with the cuisines of Southern France, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and the Middle East.
..... Click the link for more information.
Greek dance is a very old tradition, being referred to by ancient authors such as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch and Lucian.[1] There are many different styles and interpratations from all of the islands and surrounding mainland areas.
..... Click the link for more information.
Greek literature refers to those writings autochthonic to the areas of Greeks|Greek]influence, typically though not necessarily in one of the Greek dialects, throughout the whole period in which the Greeks|Greek-speaking peoples have existed.
..... Click the link for more information.
The musical legacy of Greece is as diverse as its history. Cypriot music has certain similarities to traditional Greek music, and their modern popular music scenes remain well-integrated.
..... Click the link for more information.
on modern philosophy, as well as modern science. Clear unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers, to medieval Muslim philosophers and scientists, to the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, to the secular sciences of the modern day.
..... Click the link for more information.
Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía
..... Click the link for more information.
Seven TV. Other notable stations that have begun operating in recent years include Channel 10, while TeleCity was renamed Tileasty. Other stations have upgraded and modernized, however, the Greek airwaves are still cluttered with many unlicensed television stations, often
..... Click the link for more information.
The Greek diaspora (Greek: ελληνική διασπορά elliniki diaspora
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Ελευθερία ή θάνατος
Eleftheria i thanatos  
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
none
Anthem
Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν
Imnos is tin Eleftherian

..... Click the link for more information.
Northern Epirus (Greek: Βόρειος Ήπειρος Vorios Ipiros) is the part of the Balkan region of Epirus that lies in southern Albania. It is notable for being home to a large Greek minority.
..... Click the link for more information.
Greeks and Armenians have had a long cultural, religious and political relationship, dating back to Ancient Greece and strengthening during the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. This tie is reinforced by the significant diaspora population of Greeks in Armenia (and also of Armenians in
..... Click the link for more information.
365,147[1]
1.84% of Australia's population.
Regions with significant populations Melbourne, Sydney, Perth, Adelaide, West End, Brisbane
Languages Australian English, Greek, Languages of Greece Religions Predominantly Orthodox, Christianity


..... Click the link for more information.
Greeks (Bulgarian: гърци gǎrci) are the seventh-largest ethnic minority in Bulgaria (Greek: Βουλγαρία
..... Click the link for more information.
Canadians of Greek ancestry

Total population 215,110 [1]
Regions with significant populations Ontario, Montreal, Western Canada
Languages English, Greek Religions Predominantly Orthodox, Protestant [2]
..... Click the link for more information.
The Greeks had a thriving presence in Egypt from the ancient times up to today.

Antiquity

Greeks have been living in Egypt since the ancient times. Herodotus who visited Egypt in the 5th century BCE wrote that the Greeks were the first foreigners that ever lived in Egypt
..... Click the link for more information.
The Greek diaspora in Germany forms a significant community, totaling some 350,000 people.

History

The first Greeks came during the time of the Roman Empire to central Europe.
..... Click the link for more information.
Greeks (Greek: Έλληνες Ellines, Hungarian: Görögök) are one of the thirteen officially recognized ethnic minorities in Hungary since The Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities Act
..... Click the link for more information.
Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language.
..... Click the link for more information.
There has been a Greek presence in Romania for at least 27 centuries. At times, as during the Phanariote era, this presence has amounted to hegemony; at other times (including the present), the Greeks have simply been one among the area's many ethnic minorities.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Greek community in South Africa is a sizable community of nearly 120,000.

History

Numbers

Notable Greek-South Africans

  • George Bizos

See also

  • Greek people
  • Greek diaspora

External links


..... Click the link for more information.
Greeks in Turkey (Turkish: Rumlar) are Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul and on the two islands off the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Turkish: Gökçeada and Bozcaada
..... Click the link for more information.
Greeks established colonies on the Ukrainian shores of the Black Sea as early as 6th century B.C. The Greek colonies traded with various ancient nations around the Black sea: Scythians, Maeotae, Cimmerians, Goths, proto-Slavs.
..... Click the link for more information.
Greek/Cypriot
Est. 200,000
upto 0.34% of the British population
Regions with significant populations Throughout the United Kingdom, in particular, London  • Birmingham
..... Click the link for more information.
1,291,381[1]
0.4% of the U.S population.
Regions with significant populations Northeast, West, South
Languages American English, Greek, Languages of Greece Religions Christianity

A Greek American
..... Click the link for more information.
Antiochian Greeks are the members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch who have resided in the territory of contemporary Turkish province of Hatay. They are primarily speakers of Levantine Arabic, but also of Greek and Turkish.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.