Verbal adjective

In linguistics, a non-finite verb (or a verbal) is a verb form that is not limited by a subject; and more generally, it is not fully inflected by categories that are marked inflectionally in language, such as tense, aspect, mood, number, gender, and person. As a result, a non-finite verb cannot generally serve as the main verb in an independent clause; rather, it heads a non-finite clause.

By some accounts, a non-finite verb acts simultaneously as a verb and as another part of speech; it can take adverbs and certain kinds of verb arguments, producing a verbal phrase (i.e., non-finite clause), and this phrase then plays a different role — usually noun, adjective, or adverb — in a greater clause. This is the reason for the term verbal; non-finite verbs have traditionally been classified as verbal nouns, verbal adjectives, or verbal adverbs.

English has three kinds of verbals: participles, which function as adjectives; gerunds, which function as nouns; and infinitives, which have noun-like, adjective-like, and adverb-like functions. Each of these kinds of verbals is also used in various common constructs; for example, the past participle is used in forming the perfect aspect (to have done).

Other kinds of verbals, such as supines and gerundives, exist in other languages.

Participles

Main article: Participle


A participle is a verbal adjective that describes a noun as being a participant in the action of the verb. English has two kinds of participles: a present participle, also called an imperfect participle, which ends in -ing and which ordinarily describes the agent of an action, and a past participle, also called a perfect participle, which typically ends in -ed (but can also end in -en, -t, or none of these), and which ordinarily describes the patient of an action.

The following sentences contain participles:
  • The talking children angered the teacher. (Here talking modifies children.)
  • Annoyed, Rita ate dinner by herself in the bedroom. (Here annoyed modifies Rita.)
In English, the present participle is used in forming the continuous aspect (to be doing); the past participle is used in forming the passive voice (to be done) and the perfect aspect (to have done).

A participial phrase is a phrase consisting of a participle and any adverbials and/or arguments; the participle is the head of such a phrase:
  • Gazing at the painting, she recalled the house where she was born. (Here gazing at the painting modifies she.)

Gerunds

Main article: Gerund


A gerund is a verbal noun that refers to the action of the verb. In English, a gerund has the same form as a present participle (see above), ending in -ing:
  • Fencing is good exercise. (Here fencing is the subject of is.)
  • Leroy expanded his skills by studying. (Here studying is the object of by.)
A gerund phrase is a phrase consisting of a gerund and any adverbials and/or arguments; the gerund is the head of such a phrase:
  • My evening routine features jogging slowly around the block. (Here jogging slowly around the block is the direct object of features.)

Infinitives

Main article: Infinitive


In English, the infinitive verb form is often introduced by the particle to, as in to eat or to run. The resulting phrase can then function as a subject or object, or as a modifier.
  • To succeed takes courage, foresight, and luck. (Here to succeed is the subject of takes.)
  • I don't have time to waste. (Here to waste modifies time.)
  • Carol was invited to speak. (Here to speak is the object of invited.)
  • Do not stop to chat. (Here to chat functions as an adverb modifying stop.)
An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any related words.
  • Paul wanted to learn silk screening. (The infinitive phrase to learn silk screening is the object of wanted.)

Bibliography

  • Dodds, Jack (2006). The Ready Reference Handbook, 4th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.. ISBN 0-321-33069-2
  • Rozakis, Laurie (2003). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Grammar and Style, 2nd Edition. Alpha. ISBN 1-59257-115-8

See also

External links

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist.
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verb is a word belonging to the part of speech that usually denotes an action (bring, read), an occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand).
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inflection or inflexion is the modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) to reflect grammatical (that is, relational) information, such as gender, tense, number or person.
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Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. In English, this is a property of a verb form, and expresses only time-related information.
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In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. For example, in English the difference between I swim and I am swimming is a difference of aspect.
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In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. Many languages express distinctions of mood through morphology, by changing (inflecting) the form of the verb.
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grammatical number is grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one" or "more than one").[1]
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In linguistics, grammatical genders, sometimes also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once.
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Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns.
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In grammar, an independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a grammatically viable simple sentence. Independent clauses express a complete thought and contain a subject and a predicate.
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In linguistics, a non-finite clause is a subordinate clause whose verb is non-finite; for example, many languages can form non-finite clauses from infinitives. Like any subordinate clause, a non-finite clause serves a grammatical role — commonly that of a noun, adjective, or
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adverb is a part of speech. It is any word that modifies any other part of language: verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs, except for nouns; modifiers of nouns are primarily determiners and adjectives.
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A syntactic verb argument, in linguistics, is a phrase that appears in a relationship with the verb in a clause. Typical syntactic arguments are the subject and the direct object, which are usually termed "core arguments".

Arguments can be optional or compulsory.
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Examples
A proper or common noun can co-occur with an article or an attributive adjective. Verbs and adjectives can't. As usual, a `*' in front of an example means that this example is ungrammatical.
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    In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjective's subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to.
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    In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or as a modifier. Participles often share properties with other parts of speech, in particular adjectives and nouns.
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    In linguistics, “gerund” is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages:
    • As applied to English, it refers to what might be called a verb's action noun, which is one of the uses of the -ing form.

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    In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. In the usual (traditional) description of English, the infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to: therefore, do and to do, be
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    The perfect aspect is a grammatical aspect that refers to a state resulting from a previous action (also described as a previous action with relevance to a particular time, or a previous action viewed from the perspective of a later time).
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    supine is a form of verbal noun used in some languages.

    In Latin

    In Latin there are two supines, I. and II. They are originally the accusative and dative or ablative forms of verbal noun in the fourth declension, respectively.
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    In linguistics, a gerundive is a verb form. The term is applied very differently to different languages; depending on the language, gerundives may be verbal adjectives, verbal adverbs, or finite verbs.
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    In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or as a modifier. Participles often share properties with other parts of speech, in particular adjectives and nouns.
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      In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjective's subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to.
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      Examples
      A proper or common noun can co-occur with an article or an attributive adjective. Verbs and adjectives can't. As usual, a `*' in front of an example means that this example is ungrammatical.
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      In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the participant of a situation that carries out the action in this situation. Also, agent is the name of the thematic role (also known as the thematic relation) with the above definition.
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      In linguistics, a grammatical patient is the participant of a situation upon whom an action is carried out. A patient as differentiated from a theme must undergo a change in state. At the very least, there is debate to this effect.
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      The continuous and progressive aspects are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.
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      In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is in the active voice.
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      The perfect aspect is a grammatical aspect that refers to a state resulting from a previous action (also described as a previous action with relevance to a particular time, or a previous action viewed from the perspective of a later time).
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      In grammar, a phrase is a group of words that functions as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence.

      For example the house at the end of the street (example 1) is a phrase. It acts like a noun.
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