Vic



Vic
ProvinceBarcelona
ComarcaOsona
Population (2006)38,747
Area30.58 km
Population
density (2006)
1266 /km
Elevation484 m
Demonymvigatà (m.)
vigatana (
f.)
MayorJosep Maria Vila d'Abadal Serra

Osona


Enlarge picture
Roman temple
Enlarge picture
Plaça


Vic is the capital of the comarca of Osona, in the province of Barcelona, Spain. Its geographic location, only 69 km from Barcelona and 60 km from Girona, has made the city one of the most important of central Catalonia. On 2005-12-22, the inhabitants of the city won about 500 million euros in the Spanish Christmas Lottery.[1]

History

Vic is of ancient origin. Vic, in past times, was called Ausa by the Romans. Iberian coins bearing this name have been found there. The Visigoths called it Ausona.

During the 8th and 9th centuries, Vic sat in the Spanish Marches that separated Frankish and Islamic forces. It was destroyed in 788 during a Muslim incursion. Afterwards only one quarter was rebuilt, which was called Vicus Ausonensis (vicus is Latin for city borough), from which the name Vic was derived, when it was repopulated by Wilfred the Hairy in 878 who gained control over the high part of the city and gave up the lowest part to the bishop to construct the episcopal see. From then on, the city was ruled by the count of Barcelona and by the bishop of Vic.

At a council in Toulouges in 1027, the bishop of Vic established the first Peace and Truce of God that helped reduce private warfare.

During the 18th century the city was the first focus of the rebellion against the centralist policy of king Philip V of Spain. The conflict became the War of the Spanish Succession, which resulted in Catalonia losing its freedom as a nation.

In the early 20th century it had 9500 inhabitants. In 1992 Vic held the Roller Hockey events of the 1992 Summer Olympics of Barcelona.

Ecclesiastical history

The bishopric is a suffragan of the archbishopric of Tarragona, bounded on the north by Girona, on the east by Gerona and Barcelona, on the south by Barcelona and Tarragona, on the west by Tarragona and Lleida. It lies within the four Catalonian provinces, but the greater part of it in that of Barcelona.

The introduction of Christianity was undoubtedly very early, as martyrs of Ausa are recorded in the time of Emperor Decius, and in the earliest records of the Tarraconensian sees the Bishop of Vic is one of the very first mentioned. None, however, is mentioned by name until 516 when Cinidius is named as assisting at the provincial Council of Tarragona and Girona. Aquilinus (589-99) attended the third Council of Toledo; Esteban, the fourth and one at Egara; Dominus, the sixth of Toledo; Guericus, the eighth; Wisefredus sent his vicar to the thirteenth, and attended in person the fifteenth and sixteenth. With this bishop ends the history of the Church of Ausona before the Saracen invasion.

The reconquest of Vic was begun in the time of Louis the Pious, who confided the civil government to Borrell, Count of Ausona, all ecclesiastical matters being under the direction of the Archbishop of Narbonne.

In 826 Vic fell once more into the hands of the Moors and was finally reconquered by Wilfred the Hairy, independent Count of Barcelona.

Count Wilfred dedicated to the Blessed Virgin the famous monastery of Ripoll, which was already in existence in 888, and obtained form the Archbishop of Narbonne the consecration of Godmarus as Bishop of Vic. The bishops and the family of Moncada disputed the right of sovereignty over the city until 1315, when the Bishop Berenguer Gaguardia ceded his rights to the king, James II, who also purchased the rights of the Moncadas.

Bishop Atton (960-72) is worthy of mention as a great promoter of studies. Many persons availed themselves of the advantages offered by his reforms, among them Gerbert, the monk of Aurillac, afterwards Pope Sylvester II, who was distinguished for his learning.

Another of the most illustrious bishops of Vic was Oliva (1018-46), son of the Count of Besalú, and Abbot of Ripoll where he reconstructed and richly decorated the church. The dedication took place 15 January, 1032. He also, with the help of Ermesinda, Countess of Barcelona, reconstructed the cathedral and dedicated it to Sts. Peter and Paul on 31 August, 1038. In the time of his successor Guillermo I the relics of its patron saints, the martyrs Lucianus and Marcianus, were found at Vic, and a council was held for the restoration of peace among the faithful.

Berenguer Seniofredo reformed the chapter, expelling lax members and introducing regular observance. Berenguer obtained for himself the dignity of Archbishop of Tarragona, which was contested by the Bishop of Narbonne. Among the Spanish bishops who attended the Council of Trent was Acisclo Moya de Contreras, Bishop of Vic, who was accompanied by the theologian Pedro Mercado.

Of the more recent bishops, José Morgades y Gili deserves special mention. He restored the monastery of Ripoll, destroyed and pillaged by the revolutionists, and reconsecrated its church on 1 July, 1893. He also established at Vic an archaeological museum where he collected many treasures of medieval art which had been dispersed among the ancient churches of the diocese. The next Bishop of Vic was José Torras y Bages, a man of great culture and learning.

Other celebrated natives of Vic diocese include:

Culture

Among other centers and institutions working to promote culture education, Vic is renowned for:
  • The Universitat de Vic, a young but active University that, according to its numbers, has grown to be the most important outside the four main cities of Catalonia.
  • The Museu episcopal, a medieval art museum administered by the bishopric.
  • The Museu de la pell, a museum dedicated to leathers.
  • The popular markets, trade fairs and festivals. Especially the Mercat de música viva de Vic & Mercat Medieval.

Economy

For centuries, the city's primary industrial and commercial activity was a textile industry, now almost disappeared. Nowadays, the pillars of the economy are agriculture and other alimentary industries, and construction.

The city is famous for its sausages and other pork derivatives, especially fuet, a thin cured sausage. The making of cured sausages and cold meats stems from the Vic plain's long tradition of pig farming.

Sights and monuments

It is disputed whether the Church of Sant Pere Apòstol or Sta. Maria la Rodona [2] was the first cathedral church. For centuries the bishops celebrated the first Christmas Mass in this church, and the third in that of Sant Pere.

The very ancient Church of S. Maria was rebuilt from the foundations by Canon Guillem Bonfil in 1140, and consecrated forty years later by Bishop Pere Retorta. In 1787 it was demolished to make room for the new Cathedral. Bishop Jordi (915- 38) reconsecrated the Church of Ripoll and also consecrated that of Sta. Maria de Manresa.

The original cathedral, which had but a single nave, thick walls, and few windows, was replaced by that built by Bishop Oliva. As early as the thirteenth century Bishop Raimond de Anglesola wrote a pastoral letter exhorting his people to contribute towards repairing the cathedral. In 1401 Bishop Diego de Heredia added a transept, and in 1585 the door of Sant Joan was added, but the necessity of a complete reconstruction was soon recognized, and towards the end of the eighteenth century the building was torn down, and the corner stone of the new one was laid on 24 September, 1781. It was consecrated on 15 September, 1803. It is classic in design, a combination of Doric and Tuscan, with a facade of white stone enriched with a beautiful balustrade. It has three entrances, corresponding to the three naves, and colossal statutes of its six patrons. The interior is Corinthian. All the monuments and altars were destroyed when the old church was demolished, except the high altar which is of alabaster, in the Gothic style, and was given early in the fifteen century by D. Bernard Despujol. Among the chapels that of St. Bernard Calvó (1233-43), who assisted James I of Aragon in the conquest of Valencia, deserves special mention. The two-storied Gothic cloister is exceedingly beautiful. A handsome Gothic doorway leading to the chapter house has been preserved.

The conciliar seminary was begun in 1635 by Gaspar Gil and was finally finished, by command of Pope Benedict XIV, by Manuel Muñoz in 1748. The modern seminary is located in the former Jesuit College. It has sent out many famous men, among them Balmes and the poet Jacint Verdaguer, author of "L'Atlàntida". The episcopal palace was destroyed in the wars of 1640 and rebuilt by degrees, being completed by Bishop Veyan. The archaeological museum is in this building.

Manresa, where St. Ignatius Loyola wrote his Spiritual Exercises, is situated in the Diocese of Vic. His memory is venerated in the Santa Cova, which has been converted into a church, and a magnificent college of the Jesuits built near it.

Demography

1900 1930 1950 1970 1986 2006
12,07515,00516,97525,90628,58338,747

Miscellaneous

The University of Vic never attained to any great importance; it is not known when or by whom it was founded. King Philip II granted it the privilege of conferring degrees, but only in philosophy and the arts (1599). Philip V, in the Cortes of Barcelona (1702), granted it the power to confer degrees in theology and other higher sciences.

The greatest glory of Vic of modern times is Jaime Balmes, the foremost Spanish philosopher of the nineteenth century, whose remains are interred in the cloister of the cathedral. His first centenary was celebrated at Vic by a Catholic Congress.

Other celebrated natives of Vic include:

See also

Sources and references

1. ^ Spanish town wins big in lottery, CNN, December 22, 2005. Archived on the Internet Archive January 16, 2006.
2. ^ Sta. Maria la Rodona archaeological site and history
3. ^ (1967) Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Marquis Who's Who. 
  • Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria; Rios Calvet, Jaume; Rabella Vives, Josep Maria (1989). Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona:Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3 (Spanish). ISBN 84-87135-02-1 (Catalan).
  • Paul Freedman, "The Diocese of Vic" has broad implications for the medieval history of Catalonia in general
  • Diocese of Vic general information of the Catholic-Hierarchy website

External links


[ edit ]Municipalities of Osona
Alpens | Baleny | El Brull | Calldetenes | Centelles | Collsuspina | Espinelves | Folgueroles | Gurb | Llu | Malla | Manlleu | Les Masies de Roda | Les Masies de Voltreg | Montesquiu | Muntanyola | Olost | Orist | Ors | Perafita | Prats de Lluans | Roda de Ter | Rupit i Pruit | Sant Agust de Lluans | Sant Bartomeu del Grau | Sant Boi de Lluans | Sant Hiplit de Voltreg | Sant Juli de Vilatorta | Sant Mart d'Albars | Sant Mart de Centelles | Sant Pere de Torell | Sant Quirze de Besora | Sant Sadurn d'Osormort | Sant Vicen de Torell | Santa Ceclia de Voltreg | Santa Eugnia de Berga | Santa Eullia de Riuprimer | Santa Maria de Besora | Santa Maria de Corc | Seva | Sobremunt | Sora | Taradell | Tavertet | Tavrnoles | Tona | Torell | Vic | Vidr | Viladrau | Vilanova de Sau


Coordinates:
VIC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below:
  • A code for Victoria, Australia
  • The Video Interface Chip from MOS Technology, used in the Commodore VIC-20 home computer

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Spain

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Spain


  • Constitution
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  • Juan Carlos I

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Barcelona is a province of eastern Spain, in the center of the autonomous community of Catalonia. It is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona, Lleida, and Girona, and by the Mediterranean Sea.

Its capital is Barcelona.
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comarques (singular "comarca") of Catalonia (Spain). A comarca is roughly equivalent to a US "county" or a UK "district". However, in the context of Catalonia, the term "county" can be a bit misleading, because in medieval Catalonia, the most important rulers
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Osona is a comarca in central Catalonia, Spain. Its capital is Vic. Its population (as of 2001) is 129,543. It covers roughly the same area as the historic Catalan county of Osona.
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population is the collection of people or organisms of a particular species living in a given geographic area or mortality, and migration, though the field encompasses many dimensions of population change including the family (marriage and divorce), public health, work and the
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Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.

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Units for measuring surface area include:
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Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular.

Biological population densities


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elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, often the mean sea level. Elevation, or geometric height, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height
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1 metre =
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The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
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A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. In English, the name of a people's language is often the same as this word, e.g., the "French" (language or people).
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A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "larger", "greater") is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer.

In many systems, the mayor is an elected politician who serves as chief executive and/or ceremonial official of many types of
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Osona is a comarca in central Catalonia, Spain. Its capital is Vic. Its population (as of 2001) is 129,543. It covers roughly the same area as the historic Catalan county of Osona.
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comarques (singular "comarca") of Catalonia (Spain). A comarca is roughly equivalent to a US "county" or a UK "district". However, in the context of Catalonia, the term "county" can be a bit misleading, because in medieval Catalonia, the most important rulers
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Osona is a comarca in central Catalonia, Spain. Its capital is Vic. Its population (as of 2001) is 129,543. It covers roughly the same area as the historic Catalan county of Osona.
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Barcelona is a province of eastern Spain, in the center of the autonomous community of Catalonia. It is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona, Lleida, and Girona, and by the Mediterranean Sea.

Its capital is Barcelona.
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Motto
"Plus Ultra"   (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
"Marcha Real" 1
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Barcelona

Barcelona from the air

Flag Coat of Arms
Location

Coordinates :
Time Zone : CET (GMT +1)
- summer: CEST (GMT +2)
General information
Native name
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Euro
Ευρώ (Greek)
Евро[1]

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The Spanish Christmas Lottery (Sorteo de Navidad) is a national lottery game organized every year since 1812. The name Sorteo de Navidad was used for the first time in 1892.
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The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). Together these tribes were among the loosely-termed Germanic peoples who disturbed the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period.
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For other uses, see March (disambiguation).


Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka ("boundary") and refer to a border region, e.g.
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7th century - 8th century - 9th century
750s  760s  770s  - 780s -  790s  800s  810s
785 786 787 - 788 - 789 790 791
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Wilfred or Wifred, called the Hairy,[1] was Count of Urgell (870–897), Cerdanya (870–897), Barcelona (878–897), Girona (878–897), Besalú (878–897), and Ausona (886–897).
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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
840s  850s  860s  - 870s -  880s  890s  900s
875 876 877 - 878 - 879 880 881
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An episcopal see is the office of the chief bishop of a particular Church. See comes from the Latin word sedes, meaning seat, which refers to the episcopal throne (cathedra
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Count of Barcelona was, through much of its history, merged with that of King of Aragón, but before that it referred to the count of the city and its surrounding countryside. It was a Carolingian creation.
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Commune of
Toulouges


Location
Longitude 02°49'58" E
Latitude 42°40'18" N

Administration
Country  France
Arrondissement Perpignan

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The Peace and Truce of God was a medieval European movement of the Catholic Church that applied spiritual sanctions in order to limit the violence of private war in feudal society.
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