# W48

This article is about the artillery shell. For the phone W48, see W48 (telephone).

The

**W48**was an American Nuclear artillery shell, fired from a standard 155 mm (6.1 inch) howitzer. It was manufactured starting in 1963, and all units were retired in 1992.

The W48 is 6.1 inches (155 mm) in diameter and 33.3 inches long. It came in two models, Mod 0 and Mod 1, which are reported to have weighed 118 and 128 pounds respectively. It had an explosive yield equal to 72 tons of TNT (0.072 kiloton).

## Linear implosion

The W48 was a small diameter linear implosion nuclear fission weapon. Larger, "normal" implosion nuclear weapons use less nuclear material than is required to form a critical mass at normal pressure and configurations, and use large precise explosive assemblies to collapse the nuclear material to many times normal density and attain critical mass.Linear implosion uses a mass of nuclear material which is more than one critical mass at normal pressure and a spherical configuration. The mass is configured in a lower density non-spherical configuration prior to firing the weapon, and then small to moderate amounts of explosive collapse and slightly reshape the nuclear material into a supercritical mass which then undergoes chain reaction and explodes. Three methods are known to compress and reshape the nuclear material: collapsing hollow spaces inside the nuclear material, using plutonium which is stabilized in the low density delta phase at a density of 16.4 (and which collapses to denser alpha-phase under moderate explosive compression), and shaping an explosive and nuclear material so that the explosive pressure changes a stretched-out, elliptical or football shape to collapse towards a spherical or more spherical end shape.

A bare critical mass of plutonium at normal density and without additional neutron reflector material is roughly 10 kilograms. To achieve a large explosive yield, a linear implosion weapon needs somewhat more material, on the order of 13 kilograms. 13 kilograms of (highest density) alpha-phase Plutonium at a density of 19.8 g/cmÂ³ is 657 cmÂ³, a sphere of radius 5.4 cm (diameter 10.8 cm / 4.25 inches).

Linear implosion weapons could use tampers or reflectors, but the overall diameter of the fissile material plus tamper/reflector increases compared to the volume required for an untamped unreflected pit. To fit weapons into small artillery shells (155 mm and 152 mm are known; 105 mm has been alleged to be possible by nuclear weapon designer Ted Taylor), bare pits may be required.

Linear implosion weapons have much lower efficiency due to low pressure, and require 2-3 times more nuclear material than conventional implosion weapons. They are also considerably heavier, and much smaller than conventional implosion weapons. The W54 nuclear warhead used for special purposes and the Davy Crockett nuclear artillery unit was about 11 inches diameter and weighs 51 pounds. The W48 is 6 inches in diameter and weighs over twice as much, and probably requires twice as much plutonium. Independent researchers have determined that one model of US conventional implosion fission weapon cost $1.25 million per unit produced, of which $0.25 million was the total cost for all non nuclear components and $1 million the cost of the plutonium. Linear implosion weapons, requiring 2-3 times more plutonium, are extremely expensive.

## See also

## External links

- Allbombs.html list of all US nuclear weapon models at nuclearweaponarchive.org
*Linear Implosion*in the Nuclear Weapons FAQ at nuclearweaponarchive.org

The

**W48**(from German*WÃ¤hlfernsprecher 1948*) was a telephone developed in 1948 in West Germany. It was produced for the Deutsche Bundespost in very large quantities by various manufacturers until the 1970s, when it was replaced with the FeTAp 611.**.....**Click the link for more information.**Nuclear artillery**refers to the fire units and weapons of an army's artillery arm. Nuclear artillery is concerned with the use of battlefield nuclear weapons integrated into the land battle. Nuclear artillery units may deliver using guns, rockets or missiles.

**.....**Click the link for more information.

**howitzer**is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with a steep angle of descent.

**.....**Click the link for more information.

**ton**:

**long ton**(simply**ton**in countries such as the United Kingdom which formerly used the Imperial system of weights and measures) is a**weight ton**or**gross ton**, and is 2,240 lb (exactly 1,016.0469088 kg).

**.....**Click the link for more information.

**critical mass**is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction. The critical mass of a fissionable material depends upon its nuclear properties (e.g. the nuclear fission cross-section), its density, its shape and its enrichment.

**.....**Click the link for more information.

**4**, 3

(amphoteric oxide)

Electronegativity 1.28 (scale Pauling)

Ionization energies 1st: 584.7 kJ/mol

Atomic radius 175 pm

Miscellaneous

Magnetic ordering no data

Electrical resistivity (0 C) 1.

**.....**Click the link for more information.

**4**, 3

(amphoteric oxide)

Electronegativity 1.28 (scale Pauling)

Ionization energies 1st: 584.7 kJ/mol

Atomic radius 175 pm

Miscellaneous

Magnetic ordering no data

Electrical resistivity (0 C) 1.

**.....**Click the link for more information.

For other people named Theodore Taylor, see .

**Theodore Brewster Taylor**(July 11, 1925 – October 28, 2004), was a prominent Mexican-born American physicist and nuclear weapons designer.

**.....**Click the link for more information.

**W54**was the smallest nuclear warhead deployed by the United States. It was a very compact implosion-type nuclear weapon design, designed for tactical use and had a very low yield for a nuclear weapon.

**.....**Click the link for more information.

**M-388 Davy Crockett**was a tactical nuclear recoilless rifle projectile that was deployed by the United States during the Cold War. It was named after American soldier, Congressman and folk hero Davy Crockett (1786-1836).

**.....**Click the link for more information.

**Nuclear weapon designs**are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that contribute to the detonation of a nuclear weapon. They are divided into two classes, fission type and fusion type. Each class is based on the dominant energy source used at detonation.

**.....**Click the link for more information.

This is a

**list of nuclear weapons**ordered by state and then type within the states.## United States

**.....**Click the link for more information.This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.