Whitewater (controversy)

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The Whitewater controversy (also called the Whitewater scandal, Whitewatergate, or often simply Whitewater) was an American political controversy concerning the real estate dealings of Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates, James B. McDougal and Susan McDougal in the Whitewater Development Corporation, a failed business venture in the 1970s and 1980s.

Enlarge picture
Media coverage of Whitewater as the scandal develops Time, January 24, 1994

David Hale, the source of criminal allegations against President Clinton in the Whitewater affair, claimed in November 1993 that Clinton, while governor of Arkansas, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, the partner of the Clintons in the Whitewater land deal.[1] This allegation by Hale was questionable because it contradicted his own testimony in the original FBI investigation of the failure of Madison Guaranty in 1989 where Hale did not mention Clinton in reference to this same loan. Hale also had a history of creating dummy companies, then looting federal funds, such as SBA loans, from them, and allowing them to fail. Only after coming under indictment in 1993 for charges in just such a scheme did Hale make allegations against Clinton.[2] There is substantial evidence that Hale's testimony against Clinton may have been motivated by profit, and to secure protection from prosecution in his unrelated indictment and that this evidence was willfully ignored by Kenneth Starr.

A New York Times article published during the 1992 U.S. presidential campaign reported that Clinton and his wife had invested in and lost money in the Whitewater development project.[3] A U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission investigation resulted in criminal charges against the two principals in the Whitewater project, but the Clintons themselves were never charged. Three separate inquiries found that there was insufficient evidence to charge the Clintons with criminal conduct in the land deal.[4]

The term Whitewater is also sometimes used to include other controversies from the Bill Clinton administration, especially those such as Travelgate, Filegate, and the circumstances surrounding Vince Foster's death, that were investigated by the Whitewater Independent Counsel.[5]


Origins of Whitewater Development Corporation

Bill Clinton had known Arkansas businessman and political figure Jim McDougal since 1968,[5] and had made a previous small real estate investment with him in 1977.[5] Looking to start a family, Clinton and Hillary Rodham were seeking ways of supplementing their relatively modest salaries of $35,000 as Governor of Arkansas and $25,000 as Rose Law Firm associate, respectively.[5] (It was around this time that Rodham also began her cattle futures trading.[5] In Spring 1978, McDougal approached Clinton and Rodham with new proposal: to join with him and his wife Susan to buy 230 acres of undeveloped land along the south bank of the White River near Flippin, Arkansas in the Ozark Mountains.[5] The goal was to subdivide the site into lots for vacation homes, intended for the many people coming south from Chicago and Detroit who were interested in low property taxes, fishing, rafting, and mountain scenery.[5] The plan was to hold the property for a few years and then sell the lots at a profit.[5]

The four borrowed $203,000 to buy land, and subsequently transferred ownership of the land to the newly created Whitewater Development Corporation, in which all four participants had equal shares;[5] Susan McDougal chose[7] the name "Whitewater Estates";[8] their sales pitch was, "One weekend here and you'll never want to live anywhere else."[6] The business was incorporated on June 18, 1979.

Failure of Whitewater Development Corporation

Things began going badly for the venture quickly. This period featured high interest rates in general, and by the time these lots were surveyed and thus available for sale at the end of 1979, rates had climbed to near 20 percent.[5] Prospective buyers could no longer afford to buy vacation homes. Rather than take a loss on the venture, the four decided to hold on, building a model home and hoping for better economic conditions.[5]

During the next several years, Jim McDougal asked the Clintons for checks for various interest payments on the loan or other expenses; the Clintons, believed themselves passive partners in the venture, did not question these.[5][10] Concurrently, Jim McDougal had lost his job as the governor's economic aide when Bill Clinton failed to win re-election in 1980.[6] McDougal decided to go into banking instead,[6] and then acquired the Bank of Kingston in 1980 and the Woodruff Savings & Loan in 1982, renaming them the Madison Bank & Trust and the Madison Guaranty Savings & Loan, respectively.[7]

In 1985, James McDougal set his sights on investment into local residential construction, labeling the project Castle Grande. The 1,000 acres (4 km²), located south of Little Rock, Arkansas,[7] were priced at about $1.75 million, more than McDougal could afford on his own: due to financial laws, McDougal could borrow at most $600,000 from his own Savings and loan, Madison Guaranty. McDougal subsequently involved several others to produce the additional funds. Among these was Seth Ward, an employee of the bank, who helped funnel the additional $1.15 million required. To avoid potential investigations, the money was moved back and forth among several other investors and intermediaries.

However, in 1986, their scheme was unveiled by federal regulators who realized that all of the necessary funds for this real estate venture had come entirely from Madison Guaranty; regulators called Castle Grande a sham.[7] In July of that year, the McDougals resigned from Madison Guaranty. Seth Ward fell under investigation, along with the lawyer who helped him draft the agreement. Castle Grande earned $2 million in commissions and fees for McDougal's business associates,[10] but in 1989 it collapsed, at a cost to the government of $4 million.[10] This collapse helped trigger the 1989 collapse of Madison Guaranty,[10] which federal regulators then had to take over. Being federally-insured, the failure of Madison Guaranty cost the United States $68 million; and this was in the middle of the nationwide Savings and Loan crisis.

McDougal also held a fundraiser at the Madison that paid off Clinton's then campaign debt of $50,000. Madison cashier's checks accounted for $12,000 of the funds raised.

In the end, the Clintons lost between $37,000 and $69,000 on their Whitewater investment,[11] a lesser amount than the McDougals lost, for reasons unclear in the media reports.[10] However, the reasons were made clear in the Pillsbury Report, a $3 million study done for the Resolution Trust Corporation by the Pillsbury, Madison & Sutro law firm at the time that Madison Guaranty Savings & Loan was dissolved. In this report it was shown that James McDougal, who had set up the deal, was the managing partner, and Clinton was a passive investor in the venture. [12]

Clinton's first run for president

During Bill Clinton's first bid for the presidency in 1992, reporters from the The New York Times asked him about the failure of the Whitewater development, which Bill Clinton and Jim McDougal had originally purchased in 1978.[13] The subsequent New York Times article, by reporter Jeff Gerth, appeared on March 8, 1992.[3] Afterward, Vince Foster, White House deputy counsel, who had been a former law partner of Hillary Clinton at the Rose Law Firm in Arkansas, completed and submitted several years' worth of delinquent Clinton tax returns for the project

Removal of documents

After the death of Vince Foster in July of 1993, chief White House counsel Bernard Nussbaum removed documents, some of them concerning the Whitewater Development Corporation, from Foster's office and gave them to Margaret Williams. According to the New York Times, Williams placed them in a safe in the White House[14] for five days before being turned over to their personal lawyer.

Subpoena of the Presidential couple

Because of the allegations made in the New York Times article, the Justice Department opened an investigation into the failed Whitewater deal. Media pressure continued to build, and on April 22, 1994, Hillary Clinton gave an unusual press conference under a portrait of Abraham Lincoln in the State Dining Room of the White House, to address questions on both Whitewater and the cattle futures controversy; it was broadcast live by CBS, NBC, ABC, and CNN.[10] In it she reiterated that the Clintons had had a passive role in the Whitewater venture, had committed no wrongdoing, but that she realized her explanations had been somewhat vague and that she no longer opposed appointing a special prosecutor to investigate the matter.[10] Afterwards she won media praise for the manner in which she conducted herself during this, her first adversarial press conference;[10] Time called her "open, candid, but above all unflappable ... the real message was her attitude and her poise. The confiding tone and relaxed body language ... immediately drew approving reviews."[15] By now there was growing backlash against the press's relentless inquiry into Whitewater, with The New York Times coming in for special criticism by those who felt its reporters were exaggerating the significance and possible impropriety of what they were uncovering.[16]

At Clinton's request, Attorney General Janet Reno appointed a special prosecutor Robert B. Fiske in 1994 to investigate the legality of the Whitewater transactions. Two allegations surfaced: 1) that Clinton had exerted pressure on an Arkansas businessman, David Hale, to make a loan that would benefit him and the owners of Madison Guaranty; and 2) that an Arkansas bank had concealed transactions involving Clinton's gubernatorial campaign in 1990. In May of '94, Independent Counsel Robert Fiske issued a grand jury subpoena to the President and his wife for all documents relating to Madison Guaranty, with a deadline of 30 days. They weren't turned over for eighteen months. The Clintons were eventually cleared of all wrongdoing in two reports prepared by the San Francisco law firm of Pillsbury Madison and Sutro for the Resolution Trust Corporation, which was overseeing the liquidation of Madison Guaranty.

The Kenneth Starr investigation

In August 1994, Kenneth Starr was appointed by a three-judge panel to continue the Whitewater investigation, replacing Robert B. Fiske, who had been specially appointed by the Attorney General prior to the re-enactment of the Independent Counsel law. Fiske was replaced due to an apparent conflict of interest, having been chosen and appointed by Janet Reno, Clinton's Attorney General.

David Hale, the key witness against President Clinton in Starr's Whitewater investigation, alleged in November 1993 that Clinton, while governor of Arkansas, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, the partner of the Clintons in the Whitewater land deal.[1] The allegations by Hale were not consistent with his previous testimony to the FBI after the failure of Madison Guaranty in 1989. Hale’s allegations against Clinton were also made immediately following his own unrelated indictment on charges of fraud and looting the funds of a dummy company he had established.

David Hale was proprietor of Capital Management Services (CMS), which the FBI raided in downtown Little Rock on July 21, 1993. Hale in collaboration with others, had loaned millions of federal dollars, including SBA loans, to more than a dozen dummy companies that he himself secretly owned. Having no cash flow and no assets, his companies then defaulted on the loans after Hale siphoned off all the money. The ultimate accounting would show that he had walked away with as much as $3.4 million. The entire scope of Hale's crimes, extending well beyond Capital Management, would not be revealed for years after the FBI raid. Facing criminal indictment, Hale turned to attorney James D. Johnson for advice. It was at this point that Hale began to explore the possibility of leniency in exchange for testimony against Clinton. Hale's defense strategy, as proposed by attorney Randy Coleman, was to launch the story to the media that Hale was the victim of high-powered politicians who forced him to give away all of the money.[18] This strategy was undermined by testimony from November 1989, wherein FBI agents investigating the failure of Madison Guaranty had questioned Hale about his dealings with Jim and Susan McDougal, including the $300,000 loan. According to the agents' official memorandum of that interview, Hale described in some detail his dealings with Jim Guy Tucker (then an attorney in private practice), both McDougals, and several others, but never mentioned Governor Bill Clinton. Nor did Clinton's name come up when Hale testified at McDougal's 1990 trial, which ended in an acquittal.

After his indictment Hale would proclaim on national television that he had once been a "close political friend" of Bill Clinton, this at the same time he was accusing the president of joining a felony conspiracy to defraud the United States government. However, he had never donated significantly to any of Clinton's political campaigns.

Clinton denied he pressured Hale to approve the loan to Susan McDougal. By this time Hale had already pleaded guilty to two felonies and secured from prosecutors a reduction of his sentence in exchange for his testimony against Clinton. Charges were made that Hale received numerous cash payments from representatives of the so-called Arkansas Project,[1] a $2.4 million campaign established to assist in Hale's defense strategy, and to investigate Clinton and his associates between 1993 and 1997.[1] These charges were subsequently the topic of a separate investigation by former Department of Justice investigator Michael E. Shaheen Jr.[19] Shaheen filed his report in July 1999 to Starr, who summarized the findings in that there was insufficient evidence of Hale having been paid in hopes of influencing his testimony, with such allegations being "unsubstantiated or, in some cases, untrue," and that no charges would be brought against Hale or Arkansas Project outlet The American Spectator.[20] Some Starr critics complained that the full, 168-page, unleaked report had not been made public, a complaint still being reiterated as of 2001.[21]

Starr intervened with Arkansas state prosecutors on several occasions between 1994 and 1996 in an attempt to prevent them from bringing criminal charges against Hale. During a meeting with state prosecutors on September 21, 1995, a senior advisor warned that Starr might even consider charging the local law enforcement officials with federal witness intimidation if they proceeded with bringing criminal charges against Hale, according to three sources familiar with the discussions. Starr's intervention in the state case reversed the position of the previous special prosecutor Robert Fiske, who had advocated a posture of strict neutrality regarding the probe of Hale by Arkansas authorities.

Ultimately, however, the state prosecutors went ahead and signed an arrest warrant against Hale in early July 1996. Criminal charges filed by the state prosecutors charged that Hale had made misrepresentations to the state insurance commission regarding the solvency of an insurance company that he had owned, National Savings Life. The prosecutors also alleged in court papers that Hale had made the misrepresentations to conceal the fact that he had looted the insurance company. Hale said that any infraction was a technicality and that no one lost any money.[22] In March 1999 Hale was convicted of the first charge, with the jury recommending a 21-day jail sentence.[22]

In spite of questions regarding Hale's credibility or motives, Starr drafted an impeachment referral to the House of Representatives in the fall of 1997, alleging that there was "substantial and credible evidence" that Clinton might have committed perjury regarding Hale's allegations.

Theodore B. Olson,who with several associates launched the plan that later became known as the "Arkansas Project", wrote several essays for the The American Spectator attacking Clinton and many of his associates. The first of those pieces appeared in February 1994, alleging a wide variety of criminal offenses (none of which ever merited prosecution) by the Clintons and others, including Webster Hubbell. These allegations led to the discovery that Hubbell, a Hillary Clinton friend and former Rose Law Firm partner, had committed multiple frauds, mostly against his own firm. Hillary Clinton, instead of being complicit in Hubbell's crimes, had been among his victims. In December 1994, one week after Hubbell plead guilty to mail fraud and tax evasion, Associate White House Counsel Jane Sherburne created a "Task List" which includes a reference to monitoring Hubbell's cooperation with Starr. Hubbell was later recorded in prison saying "I need to roll over one more time" regarding the Rose Law firm lawsuit. In his next court appearance, he plead the Fifth Amendment against self-incrimination (see United States v. Hubbell). Olson also advised the attorneys for Paula Jones, as they prepared their successful Supreme Court argument that her lawsuit should be permitted to proceed against a sitting president.

In February 1997, Starr announced he would leave the investigation to pursue a position at Pepperdine University's law school. However, he "flip flopped" in the face of "intense criticism", and new evidence of sexual misconduct.[23]

By April 1998, diverted to some degree by the burgeoning Lewinsky scandal, and more importantly by a lack of any evidence of wrong doing in the original Whitewater allegations, Starr's investigations in Arkansas were winding down, with his Little Rock grand jury about to expire in the following month.[10] Webster Hubbell, Jim Guy Tucker, and Susan McDougal had all failed to give Starr any evidence to use against Bill Clinton.[10] When the Arkansas grand jury did conclude its work in May 1998, after 30 months in panel, it came up with only a contempt indictment against Susan McDougal.[19] Susan McDougal testified that the Clintons had been truthful in their account of the loan, and had cast doubt on her former husband's motives for cooperating with Starr. She testified that James McDougal felt abandoned by Clinton, and told her "he was going to pay back the Clintons. Republican activist and Little Rock lawyer Sheffield Nelson, James McDougal told her, was willing to "pay him some money for talking to the New York Times about Clinton, and in 1992 he told her that, in fact, one of Clinton's political enemies was paying him to tell the New York Times about Whitewater.

From the beginning, Susan McDougal charged that Starr offered her "global immunity" from other charges if she would come up with something on Clinton. McDougal told the jury that defying the independent counsel wasn't easy for her, or her family. "It's been a long road, a very long road ... and it was not an easy decision to make," McDougal told the court.

In September 1998 Independent Counsel Starr released the famous Starr Report, concerning offenses that may have been committed by President Clinton as part of the Lewinsky scandal. It did not mention Whitewater at all, save for a glancing reference that longtime Clinton friend and advisor Vernon Jordan had both tried to find Monica Lewinsky a job after her removal from White House internship and tried to help Webster Hubbell financially with consulting contracts while he was a figure of interest in the Whitewater investigations.[19] Indeed it was on this one basis that Starr had taken on the Lewinsky investigation under the umbrella of the Whitewater Independent Counsel mandate in the first place.[19]

There was much acrimony from the most fervent critics of the Clintons after release of the Starr report on the Foster matter and after Starr's departure and return to the case. The death of Foster had been the source of many conspiracy theories. Christopher Ruddy, a reporter for Clinton critic Richard Scaife's Pittsburgh Tribune-Review helped fuel much of this speculation with claims that Starr had not pursued this line of inquiry far enough.[25]

Reaction of the Clintons

On January 26, 1996, Hillary Clinton testified before a grand jury concerning her investments in Whitewater. She noted they never borrowed any money from the bank, nor had they caused anyone to borrow money on their behalf. Over the course of the investigation, fifteen individuals — including Clinton friends Jim McDougal and Susan McDougal, White House counsel Webster Hubbell and Arkansas Governor Jim Guy Tucker — were convicted of federal charges unrelated to Whitewater. Clinton pardoned four of them in the final hours of his presidency (see list of people pardoned by Bill Clinton).

Reaction of Senate and Congress

Parallel to the Independent Counsel track, both houses of the United States Congress had been investigating Whitewater and holding hearings on it. The House Banking Committee began hearings in July 1994.

The Senate Banking Committee also began hearings on Whitewater in July 1994;[26] these intensified in May 1995, following the Republican gain of control, when the Senate Special Whitewater Committee was formed, with Republican Banking Committee chairman Al D'Amato also being chairman of the special committee and Michael Chertoff being chief counsel. The committee's hearings ran for 300 hours over 60 sessions across 13 months, taking over 10,000 pages of testimony and 35,000 pages of depositions from almost 250 people; many of these marks were records.[27] The hearings' testimony and senatorial lines of investigation mostly followed partisan lines.[27] The Senate Special Whitewater Committee issued an 800-page majority report on June 18, 1996, which only hinted at one possible improper action by President Clinton, but broadly accused "an American presidency [of having] misused its power, circumvented the limits on its authority and attempted to manipulate the truth." The First Lady came in for much stronger criticism, as she was billed as "the central figure" in all aspects of their investigations.[28] The Democratic minority on the Committee derided these findings as "a legislative travesty," "a witch hunt," and "a political game."[28]

Starr testifies

On November 19, 1998, Independent Counsel Starr testified before the House Judiciary Committee in connection with the Impeachment of Bill Clinton over charges related to the Lewinsky scandal. Here, Starr said that in late 1997 he had come close to preparing an impeachment report related to Whitewater, in particular related to the fraudulent $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, and to whether the President had testified truthfully regarding the loan.[29] Starr said that he held back the charges due to not being sure of the truthfulness of two major witnesses,[30] but that the investigation was still ongoing. Regarding the reappearance of Hillary Rodham Clinton's Rose Law Firm billing records in the White House residential section, Starr said the investigation had found no explanation for the disappearance or the reappearance: "It remains a mystery to this day."[30] Starr also chose this occasion to completely exonerate President Clinton of any involvement in the Travelgate and Filegate matters;[29] Democrats on the committee immediately criticized Starr for withholding these findings, as well as the Whitewater one, until after the 1998 Congressional elections.[30]


Ultimately the Clintons were never charged, but 14 other persons were convicted of more than 40 crimes, including a sitting Governor who was forced to resign. *.<ref >Washington Post, Caught in the Whitewater Quagmire, August 28, 1995; Page A01

Tax returns

In March 1992, during his presidential campaign, the Clintons acknowledged that on their 1984 and 1985 tax returns, they had claimed improper tax deductions for interest payments made by the Whitewater Development Company and not them personally.[31] Due to the age of mistake, the Clintons were not obligated to make good the error, but Bill Clinton announced that they would.[31]

Almost two years then passed before, on December 28, 1993, the Clintons did make this reimbursement payment, for $4,900, to the Internal Revenue Service. This was done just before Justice Department investigators started seeking the Clintons' Whitewater files. The payment was made without filing an amended return (possibly because the three-year period for amended return filing had passed), but did include full interest on the amount in error, including the additional two-year delay.[31] The Whitewater files in question, publicly released in August 1995, cast some doubt on the Clintons' assertions in the matter, as they showed that the couple were aware that the interest payments in question were by the Whitewater corporation and not them personally.[31]

Ray Report

Kenneth Starr's successor as Independent Counsel, Robert Ray, released a report in September 2000 that stated "This office determined that the evidence was insufficient to prove to a jury beyond a reasonable doubt that either President or Mrs. Clinton knowingly participated in any criminal conduct."[13] Ray nonetheless criticized the White House in a statement regarding the release of the report, saying delays in the production of evidence and "unmeritorious litigation" by the president's lawyers severely impeded the investigation's progress. Ray's report effectively ended the Whitewater investigation, with a total cost to American taxpayers of nearly $60 million.[4]

Throughout the affair, the White House repeated alleged various forms of "privilege" in order to avoid turning over evidence sought by the Office of Independent Counsel. At the same time, Clinton's private lawyer, David Kendall, often claimed that the OIC was engaged in illegal acts or various forms of misconduct. In each case, the OIC went to court and won. These blockade attempts dramatically increased the duration and expense of the investigation, an ironic point considering that one of the major accusations leveled at the OIC was that its investigation was overly long and expensive.


Bill and Hillary Clinton never visited the actual Whitewater property.[32] In May 1985, Jim McDougal had sold the remaining lots of the failed Whitewater Development Corporation to local realtor Chris Wade.[32] By 1993, there were a few occupied houses on the site, but mostly just "For Sale" signs; after swarms of Whitewater reporters made the trek there, one owner hung a sign saying "Go Home, Idiots."[32] By 2007, there were about 12 houses in the subdivision, with the last lot up for sale by son Chris Wade, Jr. for $25,000.[33] In Flippin, Jim McDougal's savings and loan bank had been replaced by a variety of small businesses, most recently a barbershop.[33]

The length, expense, and results of the greater Whitewater investigations turned much of the public against the Independent Counsel mechanism.[7] In particular, Democrats perceived Whitewater as having become a political witch-hunt, much as Republicans had at the end of the 1980s Iran-Contra investigations.[7] As such, the Independent Counsel law expired in 1999, with critics saying it cost too much with too little results;[34] even Kenneth Starr favored the law's demise.[34] Indeed no one ended up happy with the Whitewater investigation: Democrats felt as just indicated, Republicans were frustrated that both Clintons had escaped formal charges, and people without partisan involvement found Whitewater's facts and narratives, which spanned four decades, difficult to understand to the point of bafflement.

See also


1. ^ Jonathan Broder and Murray Waas, "The road to Hale", Salon.com, March 17, 1998. Accessed August 25, 2007.
2. ^ Murray Waas, "The story Starr did not want to hear", Salon.com, August 17, 1998. Accessed August 25, 2007.
3. ^ Jeff Gerth, "Clintons Joined S.& L. Operator In an Ozark Real-Estate Venture", March 8, 1992. Accessed April 30, 2007.
4. ^ "Ray: Insufficient evidence to prosecute Clintons in Whitewater probe", CNN, September 20, 2000. Accessed April 30, 2007.
5. ^ [1]
6. ^ Hillary Rodham Clinton. Living History. Simon & Schuster, 2003. ISBN 0-7432-2224-5. pp. 86-88.
7. ^ Gerald S. Greenberg, Historical Encyclopedia of U.S. Independent Counsel Investigations, Greenwood Press, 2000. ISBN 0313307350. pp. 362-364.
8. ^ Robert Ray, "Final Report of the Independent Counsel In Re: Madison Guaranty Savings & Loan Association" - "The Clintons, The McDougals, and the Whitewater Development Company", United States Government Printing Office, January 5, 2001.
9. ^ "Arkansas Roots", CNN.com, July 4, 1997. Accessed August 26, 2007.
10. ^ Gwen Ifill, "Hillary Clinton Takes Questions on Whitewater", April 23, 1994. Accessed July 15, 2007.
11. ^ Michael Tomasky, "Can We Know Her?", The New York Review of Books, July 19, 2007. Accessed July 28, 2007.
12. ^ Gene Lyons, "TIME'S EMPTY WHITEWATER EXCLUSIVE", Accessed July 28, 2007.
13. ^ Robert W. Ray, "Final Report of the Independent Counsel In Re: Madison Guaranty Savings & Loan Association", January 5, 2001. Accessed April 30, 2007.
14. ^ Michael Wines, "New Misstatements Admitted In Handling of Foster's Files", The New York Times, August 3, 1994. Accessed April 30, 2007.
15. ^ Michael Duffy, "Open and Unflappable", Time magazine, April 1994. Accessed July 16, 2007.
16. ^ Gene Lyons, "Fool for Scandal: How the 'Times' got Whitewater wrong", Harper's Magazine, October 1994. Accessed August 27, 2007.
17. ^ Jonathan Broder and Murray Waas, "The road to Hale", Salon.com, March 17, 1998. Accessed August 25, 2007.
18. ^ Joe Conason and Gene Lyons, "Nabbing David Hale", Salon.com, March 3, 2000. Accessed August 25, 2007.
19. ^ Jonathan Broder, "Where's Whitewater?", Salon.com, September 11, 1998. Accessed August 25, 2007.
20. ^ "Whitewater Report Finds No Proof of Tampering", The New York Times, July 29, 1999. Accessed August 25, 2007.
21. ^ Joe Conason and Editors, "Why won't the government release the Shaheen Report?", Salon.com, May 17, 2001. Accessed August 25, 2007.
22. ^ "Whitewater Figure Guilty in Insurance Case", The New York Times, March 26, 1999. Accessed August 25, 1999.
23. ^ "Kenneth W. Starr", CNN profile. Accessed April 30, 2007.
24. ^ Eric Pooley, "Meanwhile, Back in Arkansas ...", Time, April 13, 1998. Accessed July 28, 2007.
25. ^ Christopher Ruddy, series of stories, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 1995 through 1997.
26. ^ "Timeline", CNN.com. Accessed June 30, 2007.
27. ^ David Maraniss, "The Hearings End Much as They Began", The Washington Post, June 19, 1996. Accessed June 30, 2007.
28. ^ Brian Knowlton, "Republican Report Stokes the Partisan Fires : Whitewater Unchained", International Herald-Tribune, June 19, 1996. Accessed June 30, 2007.
29. ^ Ruth Marcus, Peter Baker, "Clinton 'Thwarted' Probe, Starr to Say", The Washington Post, November 19, 1998. Accessed June 12, 2007.
30. ^ Don Van Natta, Jr., "Democrats Challenge Starr on Delayed Exoneration", The New York Times, November 20, 1998. Accessed June 12, 2007.
31. ^ Jeff Gerth and Stephen Labaton, " Whitewater Papers Cast Doubt on Clinton Account of a Tax Underpayment", The New York Times, August 6, 1995. Accessed April 30, 2007.
32. ^ Living History, pp. 195-196.
33. ^ Paul Schneider, "Remember Whitewater? The Place Is Still There", The New York Times, April 20, 2007. Accessed July 31, 2007.
34. ^ "Independent counsel law fades into history", CNN.com, June 26, 1999. Accessed July 31, 2007.
  • Clinton, Bill (2005). My Life. Vintage. ISBN 1-4000-3003-X.

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# of Offices
# of Attorneys
Major Practice Areas General practice
Date Founded November 1, 1820
Founder Robert Crittenden
Chester Ashley
Limited liability partnership

Rose Law Firm
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In 1978 and 1979, lawyer and First Lady of Arkansas Hillary Rodham engaged in a series of trades of cattle futures contracts. Her initial $1,000 investment generated nearly $100,000 when she stopped trading after ten months.
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Susan McDougal (born 1955 in Heidelberg, Germany) is one of the few people who served prison time as a result of the Whitewater controversy in the United States, though fifteen individuals were convicted of federal charges. She was born Susan Carol Henley, the daughter of James B.
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White River

The White River at Des Arc, Arkansas

Country | United States
States | Arkansas,Missouri
Major cities |
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Flippin, Arkansas
Location in Marion County and the state of Arkansas
Country United States
State Arkansas
County Marion
 - City  1.
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The Ozarks (also referred to as Ozarks Mountain Country, the Ozark Mountains or the Ozark Plateau) are a physiographic, geologic, and cultural highland region of the central United States.
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Subdivision may refer to:
  • Country subdivision
  • Subdivision (land), housing subdivision (US usage)
  • Census subdivision, a term used in Canada

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Vacation property is a niche in the real estate market dealing with residences used for holiday vacations (eg. beach house). The rapid development of the Internet and technologies such as telephony and personal digital assistants that allow people to work from home since circa 1995
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City of Chicago

Nickname: "The Windy City", "The Second City", "ChiTown", "Hog Butcher for the World", "City of the Big Shoulders", "The City That Works"
Motto: "Urbs in Horto
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City of Detroit

Nickname: Motor City, Motown, Rock City, The D
Motto: "Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus"
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