William Stacy

William Stacy (17341802) was an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and a pioneer to the Ohio Country. Published histories describe his participation in colorful events such as: rallying the militia on a village common in Massachusetts; participating in the Battle of Bunker Hill; being captured by Loyalists and American Indians at the Cherry Valley massacre; narrowly escaping a death by burning at the stake; General George Washington's efforts to obtain Stacy's release from captivity and Washington's gift of a gold snuff box to Stacy at the end of the war; Stacy's post-war life as a pioneer helping to establish the first organized settlement in the Northwest Territory; and finally, his ice skating thirty miles up a frozen river at age 56, warning two of his sons of a possible Indian attack, which occurred several days later as the Big Bottom massacre. William Stacy's surname has also been spelled as Stacey, Stacia, and Stacie; the correct spelling is Stacy. He is often referred to as Colonel Stacy, an abbreviation of his last rank of lieutenant colonel.

Early life

William Stacy was born in Gloucester, Massachusetts in 1734 and died in Marietta, Ohio in 1802.[1] Slightly different years of birth and death have been incorrectly reported. Stacy grew up in Gloucester on the coast of Massachusetts and worked as a shoemaker, a trade learned from his father; he may also have worked in the seafaring business. William Stacy married Sarah Day in 1754. Subsequently, during 1757, they moved away from the coast to New Salem in western Massachusetts, and raised a large family. Stacy took up farming and continued his work as a shoemaker. He also became a commercial banker, loaning money at interest before there were any banks in the area. His customers were from New Salem and other towns in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. By the time of his early middle age, William Stacy was living a comfortable life; he was successful and widely known.[2] During 1775, at the age of 41, William Stacy’s life entered a new chapter with the onset of friction between the Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire.

Opening days of the Revolutionary War

Enlarge picture
New Salem Town Common
Enlarge picture
William Stacy plaque


William Stacy was an active revolutionary at the very beginning of the American War of Independence. By one account, he entered service at on April 19, 1775,[3] the day of the Battles of Lexington and Concord, and the opening day of the war. This would likely place Stacy near the action as patriots routed the British troops from Concord back to Boston.

Another account has William Stacy rallying the militia at his home village of New Salem, in the western portion of the colony, on April 20 1775 upon receiving the news of Lexington and Concord.[4] A memorial plaque was dedicated to Colonel Stacy in 1956 on the village common (village green) of New Salem.[5][6][7] The story reflected on the plaque has been handed down for generations beginning with an early history in 1841,<ref name = "Barber 264-5" /> and was included in the publication of the New Salem Sesquicentennial Committee in 1904.[8] The inscription on the plaque reads:

Insert the text of the quote here, without quotation marks.


The New Salem Bicentennial Commission and town historian later speculated that this event might have occurred earlier, at the time of the Powder Alarm during 1774, a precursor to the events at Lexington and Concord.[9]

Battle of Bunker Hill

As the war began, William Stacy served as major in Colonel Benjamin Woodbridge's regiment of Minutemen, which was organized into Woodbridge's 25th Massachusetts Regiment.<ref name = "Wright 796 805" /> Woodbridge's regiment was based at Cambridge, Massachusetts, near Boston, and participated in the Siege of Boston and the Battle of Bunker Hill, the first large-scale battle of the war.[10][11] An orderly book shows that on June 13 1775, several days before the battle, Major Stacy was officer of the night guard, while Colonel William Prescott, who would be the primary leader of patriot forces during the battle, was officer of the day.[12] Stacy was recommended for commission on June 16, the day before the battle.<ref name = "Wright 796 805" /> On June 17, 1775, Woodbridge's regiment of 300 soldiers arrived at Bunker Hill and took up positions immediately prior to the battle.<ref name = "Swett 5 30" /><ref name = "Frothingham 136 83" /> The men of Woodbridge's regiment joined Colonel Prescott's regiment at the redoubt (fortifications) and breastwork on the hill, and were also positioned on the right flank.[13]

Enlarge picture
Battle of Bunker Hill


The defenders on the right flank fought valiantly from behind what cover they could find.[14] The men at the redoubt and breastwork fought until they had no more bullets, finally fighting with the butts of their guns, rocks, and their bare hands.[15] Woodbridge's regiment “was not commissioned, and there are few details of it, or of its officers, in the accounts of the battle.”<ref name = "Frothingham 136 83" /> A known detail related to the regiment was an affidavit signed by William Stacy with regard to a fellow patriot who was killed in action at Bunker Hill.[16] Sergeant Benjamin Haskell (Haskall), also of New Salem and also a co-signer of that same affidavit, was reportedly in the center of the action near General Joseph Warren when Warren was killed during the battle.<ref name = "NewSalem 21" /> The New Salem Sesquicentennial Committee paid homage to Stacy, Haskell, and others of that village, proclaiming:

And in those days of darkness and disaster, which, as they come to all nations, will surely again come to us, he will tell us of another Jeremiah Meacham, of more Jeremiah Ballards, of another Benjamin Haskell, of another William Stacy…[17]

Cherry Valley massacre, and prisoner of war

Subsequently during the American Revolution, William Stacy served as lieutenant colonel in Colonel Ichabod Alden's 7th Massachusetts Regiment during 1777 and 1778.[18] The regiment was sent to Cherry Valley, New York to protect the local population from Loyalists and American Indians. The Loyalists were organized as Butler's Rangers, a Loyalist militia in the British Army, led by Colonel John Butler and his son, Captain Walter Butler. The Loyalists operated together with American Indians, under the leadership of Joseph Brant, a Mohawk leader also know as Thayendanegea.[19]

Enlarge picture
Cherry Valley massacre


While serving with Colonel Alden at Cherry Valley during October of 1778, William Stacy was transferred to the 4th Massachusetts Regiment, though remaining with Colonel Alden. During that time period, Lieutenant William McKendry, a quartermaster in Colonel Alden's regiment, kept a journal with firsthand accounts of the actions at Cherry Valley. One of his lighter notes concerning Colonel Stacy was a journal entry for October 6 1778: “Col. Stacy and Capt. Ballard had a horse race. Col. Stacy won the bet.”[20] However, one month later, Cherry Valley experienced the ravages of war. McKendry's journal entry for November 11, 1778 described the attack: “Immediately came on 442 Indians from the Five Nations, 200 Tories under the command of one Col. Butler and Capt. Brant; attacked headquarters; killed Col. Alden; took Col. Stacy prisoner; attacked Fort Alden; after three hours retreated without success of taking the fort.”<ref name = "Young 436-78" /> (It was actually Captain Butler, not Colonel Butler, commanding the attack.[21]) McKendry identified the killed as Colonel Alden and thirteen other soldiers, and thirty inhabitants during this Cherry Valley massacre. Three months later, in his journal entry for February 12 1779, McKendry describes receiving a report from an Indian of William Stacy in captivity; Stacy was apparently concerned to reassure his fellow soldiers: “the last he knew of Col. Stacy he was well and in good spirits, and told him not to mind it for it was only the fortune of war.”<ref name = "Young 436-78" />

Several accounts indicate that during the Cherry Valley massacre or thereafter, Colonel Stacy was stripped naked and tied to a stake, and was about to be tortured and killed, but was spared by Joseph Brant.[22][23][24][25][26] William Stacy was a Freemason; Joseph Brant was an educated American Indian, and had also become a Freemason. It is reported that Stacy made an appeal as one Freemason to another, thus saving his life. Colonel Stacy was subsequently taken to Fort Niagara, the Loyalist base in New York and held prisoner under Colonel Butler during the summer of 1779.[27] At Fort Niagara, Molly Brant (Mary Brant), the sister of Joseph Brant, was hostile toward Stacy, and wanted Colonel Butler to return custody of the Stacy to the Indians. She proclaimed dreams of her and the Indians using Stacy's head in an Indian football game. Colonel Butler placated Molly Brant with rum and protected his prisoner.<ref name = "Campbell 110-1 82" /> Subsequently, from late-1779 through mid-1782, Colonel Stacy was held prisoner at Fort Chambly near Montreal.[28]

As a prisoner-of-war, Colonel Stacy was the subject of high level correspondence and actions of General George Washington and other leaders of the Continental Army. General Lafayette (Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette), who fought with the Americans during the Revolution, hand-carried a letter from Continental Army General William Heath to General Washington, describing a reported Loyalist and British strategy concerning Stacy. The Loyalist strategy was to continue holding Colonel Stacy as a prisoner-of-war, and to use Stacy in a prisoner exchange, should Butler or another ranking Loyalist officer be captured by the Continental Army.[29] General Washington attempted to orchestrate a prisoner exchange for Colonel Stacy,[30] but was unsuccessful.

General Washington gave Stacy a gold snuff box as a personal memento after the war.[31] Colonel Stacy was released at the end of the war, during August 1782.<ref name = "McHenry" />[32] William Stacy's nephew, Nathaniel Stacy, writes that his first memory of childhood was the return of Col. William Stacy to New Salem after the war.[33]

Marietta and the Ohio Country

Enlarge picture
William Stacy marker in Marietta
Enlarge picture
William Stacy marker, facing prehistoric Indian burial mound


During early 1788, at about 54 years of age, William Stacy joined with other Revolutionary War officers as a pioneer to the Ohio Country, and was involved in establishing Marietta, Ohio at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers as the first permanent settlement in the Northwest Territory. Colonel Stacy joined this venture as a shareholder in the Ohio Company of Associates,[34][35] which was formed and led by General Rufus Putnam. General Lafayette visited Marietta years later and described these pioneers and former officers: “They were the bravest of brave. Better men never lived.”[36] George Washington commented “I know most of the settlers personally, and there never were men better calculated to promote the welfare of such a community.”[37] Marietta is located in the county of Ohio bearing Washington's name.

During the settlement of the Ohio Country, two of Colonel Stacy's sons were with a small group of pioneers attempting to establish a settlement on some good potential farmland known as Big Bottom, upriver from Marietta on the Muskingum River. Colonel Stacy ice skated thirty miles up the frozen river in late December 1790 and warned his sons about the danger of a possible Indian attack. His concerns were realized several days later on January 2 1791 with the occurrence of the Big Bottom massacre, and the beginning of the Northwest Indian War. Twelve people were killed in the attack, including Stacy's son John. His son Philemon was taken captive and died later.[38][39][40][41][42]

William Stacy was a prominent and active member of the pioneer settlement of Marietta. He superintended the construction of a stockade known as Picketed Point to protect the settlers from Indians,[43][44] he was an officer in the militia, and he was an officer on the first board of police.[45] Additionally, he served as an officer of the township of Marietta, and he owned one of two flour mills in the settlement.[46][47] William Stacy was a member of the Society of the Cincinnati and an original member of the American Union Lodge No. 1 (Freemasons) at Marietta.[48]<ref name = "Summers 81&#8230;295" /> Stacy was honored with the position of Foreman of the first Grand Jury in the Northwest Territory. This was an important event, as this court was the first establishment of civil and criminal law in the pioneer country.<ref name = "Hildreth 226-439" />

William Stacy lost his wife Sarah to smallpox during March of 1790 after 36 years of marriage. He subsequently married Hannah Sheffield during July of that year. William Stacy died in Marietta during 1802 at about 68 years of age. He was buried in Marietta at Mound Cemetery, the site of an ancient American Indian burial mound. Colonel Stacy has good company in his final resting place; twenty-four Revolutionary War officers were buried in Mound Cemetery, the largest number of Revolutionary War officers buried in one location.[49] A new memorial marker was erected in 1928 in Mound Cemetery by descendants and dedicated to Stacy, an American patriot and pioneer.

References

1. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) pp. 13, 15-16, 61.
2. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) pp. 15-16.
3. ^ Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolution, Vol 14, online database, The Generations Network Inc., Provo, Utah (1998); original data from the Secretary of the Commonwealth, Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolution, Vol. 14, Wright and Potter Printing Co., Boston (1896), pp. 796, 805.
4. ^ Barber, John Warner: Historical Collections, being a General Collection of Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc., relating to the History and Antiquities of Every Town in Massachusetts, with Geographical Descriptions, Dorr, Howland, & Co., Worcester, Massachusetts (1841) chapter on Franklin County, section on New Salem, pp. 264–65.
5. ^ Hunting, Beatrice Fay: “Plaque Honoring William Stacy to be Uncovered Tomorrow at New Salem”, Enterprise and Journal newspaper, Orange, Massachusetts (October 4, 1956).
6. ^ Hunting, Beatrice Fay: “Donor Attends Unveiling of Stacy Plaque at New Salem”, and Enterprise and Journal newspaper, Orange, Massachusetts (October 11, 1956).
7. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) p. 2.
8. ^ New Salem Sesqui-Centennial and History of the Town 1903, Athol, Massachusetts (1904) p. 21. (This book erroneously reports that Col. Stacy was killed by Indians near Marietta, Ohio; it was actually Col. Stacy’s son John who was killed by Indians at Big Bottom near Marietta.)
9. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) pp. 99-100.
10. ^ Swett, S.: History of Bunker Hill Battle, With a Plan, Second Edition, Munroe and Francis, Boston (1826) ‘Preliminary Chapter’ p. 5 (re/Stacy), and chapter ‘The Battle’ p. 30 (re/Woodbridge's regiment).
11. ^ Frothingham, Jr., Richard: History of the Siege of Boston and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill, Second Edition, published by Charles C. Little and James Brown, Boston (1851) Chapters V and VII, regarding the Bunker Hill Battle, p. 136 (re/Woodbridge's regiment) and p. 183 (re/Stacy).
12. ^ Frothingham, Jr., Richard: The Battle-Field of Bunker Hill, a paper communicated to the Massachusetts Historical Society, June 10, 1875, Boston (1876) in a section regarding ‘Extracts from an Orderly Book,’ pp. 38–9.
13. ^ Ketchum, Richard M.: Decisive Day, the Battle for Bunker Hill, Henry Holt and Company, Owl Books Edition, New York (1999) p. 146.
14. ^ Ketchum, Richard M.: Decisive Day, the Battle for Bunker Hill, Henry Holt and Company, Owl Books Edition, New York (1999) p. 163.
15. ^ Ketchum, Richard M.: Decisive Day, the Battle for Bunker Hill, Henry Holt and Company, Owl Books Edition, New York (1999) pp. 172–74.
16. ^ Dean, John Ward (Editor): The New England Historical & Genealogical Register, 1895,Vol XLIX, Boston (1895) in the section entitled ‘Captain William Meacham at Bunker Hill,’ p. 203.
17. ^ New Salem Sesqui-Centennial and History of the Town 1903, Athol, Massachusetts (1904) p. 49.
18. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) p. 17.
19. ^ Stone, William L.: Life of Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea) including the Border Wars of the American Revolution, J. Munsell, Albany, New York (1865) pp. 372, 374, 386–87.
20. ^ Young, Edward J.: Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. II – Second Series, 1855–1886, University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1886) section entitled Journal of William McKendry, pp. 436–78.
21. ^ Ketchum, William: An Authentic and Comprehensive History of Buffalo, with some account of Its Early Inhabitants both Savage and Civilized, Rockwell, Baker, and Hill, Buffalo, New York (1864) p. 322.
22. ^ Barker, Joseph: Recollections of the First Settlement of Ohio, Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio (1958) p. 35; original manuscript written late in Joseph Barker's life, prior to his death in 1843.
23. ^ Edes, Richard S. and Darlington, William M.: Journal and Letters of Col. John May, Robert Clarke and Co, Cincinnati, Ohio (1873), pp. 70–1.
24. ^ Drake, Francis S.: Memorials of the Society of Cincinnati of Massachusetts, Boston (1873) pp. 465–67.
25. ^ Beardsley, Levi: Reminiscences; Personal and Other Incidents; Early Settlement of Otsego County, Charles Vinten, New York (1852) p. 463.
26. ^ Zimmer, Louise: “Colonel Stacy defies odds of survival”, Marietta Times newspaper, Marietta, Ohio (March 21, 1994) p. B5.
27. ^ Campbell, William W.: Annals of Tyron County; or, the Border Warfare of New-York during the Revolution, J. & J. Harper, New York (1831) pp. 110–11, 182.
28. ^ McHenry, Chris: Rebel Prisoners at Quebec 1778-1783, Being a List of American Prisoners Held by the British during the Revolutionary War, Lawrenceburg, Indiana (1981).
29. ^ Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Seventh Series, Vol. V., Boston (1905) pp. 60, 324.
30. ^ Sparks, Jared: The Writings of George Washington, Vol VII, Harper and Brothers, New York (1847) p. 211.
31. ^ History of the Connecticut Valley in Massachusetts, Vol. II, Louis H. Everts, Philadelphia (1879) chapter on New Salem, section on Revolutionary Reminiscences, p. 668. (This book erroneously reports that Col. Stacy was killed by Indians near Marietta, Ohio; it was actually Col. Stacy’s son John who was killed by Indians at Big Bottom near Marietta.)
32. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) p. 27.
33. ^ Stacy, Nathaniel: Memoirs of the Life of Nathaniel Stacy, Abner Vedder, Columbus, Pennsylvania (1850) pp. 24, 34.
34. ^ Hulbert, Archer Butler: The Records of the Original Proceedings of the Ohio Company, Volume I, Marietta Historical Commission, Marietta, Ohio (1917) pp. xliv, cxxxi, 117, 131.
35. ^ Hulbert, Archer Butler: The Records of the Original Proceedings of the Ohio Company, Volume II, Marietta Historical Commission, Marietta, Ohio (1917) pp. 2, 50, 56, 147, 202, 241.
36. ^ Cutler, Julia Perkins: Life and Times of Ephraim Cutler, Robert Clarke and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (1890) pp. 202–03.
37. ^ Cutler, Julia Perkins: Life and Times of Ephraim Cutler, Robert Clarke and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (1890) pp. 23–4.
38. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) p. 47.
39. ^ Pritchard, Joan: “Area man discovers long roots”, Marietta A.M. newspaper, Parkersburg, West Virginia (July 24, 1994) p. 1., including article text, photo, and photo caption.
40. ^ Zimmer, Louise: More True Stories from Pioneer Valley, published by Sugden Book Store, Marietta, Ohio (1993) chapter 10 entitled Massacre at Big Bottom, pp. 92–101.
41. ^ Lane, Eula Rogers: Ode to the Big Bottom Massacre, Richardson Printing, Marietta, Ohio (1975).
42. ^ Hildreth, S. P.: Pioneer History: Being an Account of the First Examinations of the Ohio Valley, and the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory, H. W. Derby and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (1848) p. 434.
43. ^ Hulbert, Archer Butler: The Records of the Original Proceedings of the Ohio Company, Volume I, Marietta Historical Commission, Marietta, Ohio (1917) pg xliv, cxxxi, 117, 131.
44. ^ Hildreth, S. P.: Pioneer History: Being an Account of the First Examinations of the Ohio Valley, and the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory, H. W. Derby and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (1848) p. 326.
45. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) p. 37.
46. ^ Hildreth, S. P.: Pioneer History: Being an Account of the First Examinations of the Ohio Valley, and the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory, H. W. Derby and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (1848) pp. 226, 233, 273, 326–27, 333–34, 432–34, 439.
47. ^ Summers, Thomas J.: History of Marietta, The Leader Publishing Co., Marietta, Ohio (1903) pp. 81, 100–02, 294–95.
48. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) pp. 57–8.
49. ^ Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993) p. 62.

Bibliography

Enlarge picture
William Stacy plaque in New Salem, Massachusetts
Enlarge picture
Revolutionary War soldiers at Mound Cemetery, Marietta, Ohio
  • Barber, John Warner: Historical Collections, being a General Collection of Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc., relating to the History and Antiquities of Every Town in Massachusetts, with Geographical Descriptions, Dorr, Howland, & Co., Worcester, Massachusetts (1841) chapter on Franklin County, section on New Salem, pp. 264–65. The 1844 edition of this historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Historical Collections of Massachusetts.
  • Barber, John Warner: Historical Collections of the State of New York, containing a General Collection of the Most Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc., relating to its History and Antiquities, with Geographical Descriptions of Every Township in the State, S. Tuttle, New York (1842) pp. 442–43. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Historical Collections of New York.
  • Barker, Joseph: Recollections of the First Settlement of Ohio, Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio (1958) p. 35; original manuscript written late in Joseph Barker's life, prior to his death in 1843.
  • Beardsley, Levi: Reminiscences; Personal and Other Incidents; Early Settlement of Otsego County, Charles Vinten, New York (1852) p. 463. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Early Settlement of Otsego County.
  • Bradford, Alden: History of Massachusetts, From 1764, to July, 1775: When General Washington took Command of the American Army, Richardson and Lord, Boston (1822) Chapter XVI (including the Bunker Hill Battle), pp. 382–83. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at History of Massachusetts.
  • Campbell, William W.: Annals of Tyron County; or, the Border Warfare of New-York during the Revolution, J. & J. Harper, New York (1831) pp. 110–11, 182. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Annals of Tyron County.
  • Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Seventh Series, Vol. V., Boston (1905) pp. 60, 324. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
  • Cutler, Julia Perkins: Life and Times of Ephraim Cutler, Robert Clarke and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (1890) pp. 23–4, 202–03. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Life and Times of Ephraim Cutler.
  • Dean, John Ward (Editor): The New England Historical & Genealogical Register, 1895,Vol XLIX, Boston (1895) in the section entitled ‘Captain William Meacham at Bunker Hill,’ p. 203.
  • Drake, Francis S.: Memorials of the Society of Cincinnati of Massachusetts, Boston (1873) pp. 465–67. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Memorials of the Society of Cincinnati.
  • Edes, Richard S. and Darlington, William M.: Journal and Letters of Col. John May, Robert Clarke and Co, Cincinnati, Ohio (1873), pp. 70–1. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Journal and Letters of Col. John May.
  • Frothingham, Jr., Richard: History of the Siege of Boston and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill, Second Edition, published by Charles C. Little and James Brown, Boston (1851) Chapters V and VII, regarding the Bunker Hill Battle, p. 136 (re/Woodbridge’s regiment) and p. 183 (re/Stacy). This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Siege of Boston.
  • Frothingham, Jr., Richard: The Battle-Field of Bunker Hill, a paper communicated to the Massachusetts Historical Society, June 10, 1875, Boston (1876) in a section regarding ‘Extracts from an Orderly Book,’ pp. 38–9. This historical paper is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Battle Field of Bunker Hill.
  • Harvey, Arthur: Transactions of the Canadian Institute, Vol. IV 1892–93, Copp, Clark Company, Toronto (1895) pp. 288, 291. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Transactions of the Canadian Institute.
  • Hildreth, S. P.: Pioneer History: Being an Account of the First Examinations of the Ohio Valley, and the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory, H. W. Derby and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (1848) pp. 226, 233, 273, 326–27, 333–34, 432–34, 439. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory.
  • History of the Connecticut Valley in Massachusetts, Vol. II, Louis H. Everts, Philadelphia (1879) chapter on New Salem, section on Revolutionary Reminiscences, p. 668. (This book erroneously reports that Col. Stacy was killed by Indians near Marietta, Ohio; it was actually Col. Stacy’s son John who was killed by Indians at Big Bottom near Marietta.)
  • Holland, Josiah Gilbert: History of Western Massachusetts, the Counties of Hampden, Hampshire, Franklin, and Berkshire, Vol. I-Parts I and II, Samuel Bowles and Company, Springfield, Massachusetts (1855) Chapter XV, p. 214. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at History of Western Massachusetts.
  • Hulbert, Archer Butler: The Records of the Original Proceedings of the Ohio Company, Volume I, Marietta Historical Commission, Marietta, Ohio (1917) pp. xliv, cxxxi, 117, 131. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Ohio Company, Volume I.
  • Hulbert, Archer Butler: The Records of the Original Proceedings of the Ohio Company, Volume II, Marietta Historical Commission, Marietta, Ohio (1917) pp. 2, 50, 56, 147, 202, 241. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Ohio Company, Volume II.
  • Hunting, Beatrice Fay: “Plaque Honoring William Stacy to be Uncovered Tomorrow at New Salem”, Enterprise and Journal newspaper, Orange, Massachusetts (October 4, 1956).
  • Hunting, Beatrice Fay: “Donor Attends Unveiling of Stacy Plaque at New Salem”, Enterprise and Journal newspaper, Orange, Massachusetts (October 11, 1956).
  • Ketchum, Richard M.: Decisive Day, the Battle for Bunker Hill, Henry Holt and Company, Owl Books Edition, New York (1999). ISBN 0-8050-6099-5
  • Ketchum, William: An Authentic and Comprehensive History of Buffalo, with some account of Its Early Inhabitants both Savage and Civilized, Rockwell, Baker, and Hill, Buffalo, New York (1864) p. 322. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at History of Buffalo.
  • Lane, Eula Rogers: Ode to the Big Bottom Massacre, Richardson Printing, Marietta, Ohio (1975).
  • Lemonds, Leo L.: Col. William Stacy – Revolutionary War Hero, Cornhusker Press, Hastings, Nebraska (1993). ISBN 0-933909-09-8
  • Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolution, Vol 14, online database, The Generations Network Inc., Provo, Utah (1998); original data from the Secretary of the Commonwealth, Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolution, Vol. 14, Wright and Potter Printing Co., Boston (1896), pp. 796, 805.
  • McHenry, Chris: Rebel Prisoners at Quebec 1778-1783, Being a List of American Prisoners Held by the British during the Revolutionary War, Lawrenceburg, Indiana (1981).
  • Moore, Frank: Diary of the American Revolution from Newspapers and Original Documents, Charles Scribner, New York (1860), pp. 104-05. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at American Revolution from Original Documents.
  • New Salem Sesqui-Centennial and History of the Town 1903, Athol, Massachusetts (1904) pp. 21, 49. (This book erroneously reports that Col. Stacy was killed by Indians near Marietta, Ohio; it was actually Col. Stacy’s son John who was killed by Indians at Big Bottom near Marietta.) This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at New Salem Sesquicentennial.
  • Pritchard, Joan: “Area man discovers long roots”, Marietta A.M. newspaper, Parkersburg, West Virginia (July 24, 1994) p. 1., including article text, photo, and photo caption.
  • Public Papers of George Clinton, First Governor of New York, Vol. IV, James B. Lyon, Albany, New York (1900) pp. 286, 292–93. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Public Papers of George Clinton.
  • Sparks, Jared: The Writings of George Washington, Vol VII, Harper and Brothers, New York (1847) p. 211. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Writings of George Washington.
  • Stacy, Nathaniel: Memoirs of the Life of Nathaniel Stacy, Abner Vedder, Columbus, Pennsylvania (1850) pp. 24, 34.
  • Stone, William L.: Life of Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea) including the Border Wars of the American Revolution, J. Munsell, Albany, New York (1865) pp. 372, 374, 386–87. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Life of Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea).
  • Summers, Thomas J.: History of Marietta, The Leader Publishing Co., Marietta, Ohio (1903) pp. 81, 100–02, 294–95. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at History of Marietta.
  • Swett, S.: History of Bunker Hill Battle, With a Plan, Second Edition, Munroe and Francis, Boston (1826) ‘Preliminary Chapter’ p. 5 (re/Stacy), and chapter ‘The Battle’ p. 30 (re/Woodbridge’s regiment). This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at History of Bunker Hill Battle.
  • Young, Edward J.: Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. II – Second Series, 1855–1886, University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1886) section entitled Journal of William McKendry, pp. 436–78. This historical book is available online via the Google Books Library Project at Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
  • Zimmer, Louise: “Colonel Stacy defies odds of survival”, Marietta Times newspaper, Marietta, Ohio (March 21, 1994) p. B5.
  • Zimmer, Louise: More True Stories from Pioneer Valley, published by Sugden Book Store, Marietta, Ohio (1993) chapter 10 entitled Massacre at Big Bottom, pp. 92–101.
8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, the army was created to coordinate the military
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
..... Click the link for more information.
militia, also known as civilian military service and duty, in the United States is complex and has transformed over time.[1] The term militia'' can be used to describe any number of groups within the United States.
..... Click the link for more information.
Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Flag of Massachusetts Seal
''Nickname(s): Bay State State Bird = Black-capped Chickadee''
''Motto(s): Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem (Latin: By the sword she seeks peace under liberty)''


..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Loyalists were British North American colonists who remained loyal subjects of the British crown during the American Revolution. They were also called Tories, King's Men, or Royalists. Those Loyalists who left and resettled in Canada called themselves the United Empire Loyalists.
..... Click the link for more information.
indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas, their descendants, and many ethnic groups who identify with those peoples. They are often also referred to as Native Americans, First Nations
..... Click the link for more information.
Cherry Valley massacre was an attack by British and Seneca Indian forces on a fort and village in eastern New York on November 11, 1778, during the American Revolutionary War.
..... Click the link for more information.
Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft).
..... Click the link for more information.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1][2] was a central, critical figure in the founding of the United States of America, as well as the nation's first president (1789–1797).
..... Click the link for more information.
Snuff is a type of smokeless tobacco. There are several types, used in different ways, but traditionally it means Dry/European nasal snuff, which is insufflated.

Types

Dry

Dry snuff or European snuff is usually (but not always) scented or 'flavoured'.
..... Click the link for more information.
Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. The Northwest Ordinance, passed by the Continental Congress on July 13, 1787, provided for the administration of
..... Click the link for more information.
Ice skating is traveling on ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special boots (or, more primitively, without the boots, tied to regular footwear). People usually skate on frozen rivers and lakes and at skating rinks.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Big Bottom massacre occurred on January 2, 1791, near present-day Stockport in Morgan County, Ohio, United States. Delaware and Wyandot Indians surprised a new settlement on the Muskingum River, stormed the blockhouse and killed eleven men, one woman, and two children.
..... Click the link for more information.
Lieutenant Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces which is currently used by the United States Army, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps, and United States National Guard.
..... Click the link for more information.
Gloucester, Massachusetts
Gloucester City Hall on Dale Avenue. Built in 1871.

Seal
Location in Essex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates:
Country United States
..... Click the link for more information.
Marietta, Ohio
Downtown Marietta in July 2007, including the Muskingum River (foreground) and the Ohio River (background right)

Seal
Motto:
Coordinates:
Country United States
..... Click the link for more information.
Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Flag of Massachusetts Seal
''Nickname(s): Bay State State Bird = Black-capped Chickadee''
''Motto(s): Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem (Latin: By the sword she seeks peace under liberty)''


..... Click the link for more information.
Shoemaking is a traditional handicraft profession, which has now been largely superseded by industrial manufacture of footwear.

Shoemakers (also known as cobblers or cordwainers) may produce a range of footwear items, including shoes, boots, sandals, clogs and moccasins.
..... Click the link for more information.
Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat.

It involves a knowledge of a variety of topics and development of specialised skills including:
  • Navigation and international maritime law;
  • Weather, meteorology and forecasting;
  • Watchstanding;

..... Click the link for more information.
New Salem, Massachusetts

Seal
Location in Franklin County in Massachusetts
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Franklin
..... Click the link for more information.
Agriculture (from Agri Latin for ager ("a field"), and culture, from the Latin cultura "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the soil". A literal reading of the English word yields "tillage of the soil of a field".
..... Click the link for more information.
bank is a commercial or state institution that provides financial services , including issuing money in various forms, receiving deposits of money, lending money and processing transactions and the creating of credit.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century, in New England, centered around the present-day cities of Salem and
..... Click the link for more information.
Thirteen Colonies were British colonies in North America founded between 1607 (Virginia), and 1733 (Georgia). Although Great Britain held several other colonies in North America and the West Indies, the colonies referred to as the "thirteen" are those that began a rebellion against
..... Click the link for more information.
British Empire was the largest empire in history and for a substantial time was the foremost global power. It was a product of the European age of discovery, which began with the maritime explorations of the 15th century, that sparked the era of the European colonial empires.
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.