wireline

The term wireline usually refers to a cabling technology used by operators of oil and gas wells to lower equipment into the well for the purposes of a well intervention. In its simplest and most used form, the wireline simply consists of a single strand of metal wire most commonly 0.108" or 0.125" in diameter (sometimes referred to as slickline). In other cases, the wire will be composed of braided strands, rendering it stronger and heavier (called braided line). Braided line can contain an inner core of insulated wires which provide power to equipment located at the end of the cable (called electric line or E-line) and provides a pathway for electrical telemetry for communication between equipment at each end of the cable. The first use of wireline in a wellbore was as a measuring device. Measuring systems using rope or flat section steel tape, were over time replaced by wire.

Uses

Slickline

The nature of slickline requires any tools to be able to operate independently of electrical communication from surface. This limits slickline to jobs such as setting plugs and straddes, which require mechanical action. Some completion components may be deployed and retrieved on slickline such as wireline retrievable safety valves, downhole gauges (assuming that communication and power requirements met by other means) and gas lift valves. Slickline can also be used for fishing, the process of trying to retrieve other equipment and wire, which has been dropped down the hole.

Braided line

Braided line is generally used when the strength of slickline is insufficient for the task. Most commonly, this is for heavy fishing such as retrieving broken drill pipe.

Electric line

Electric line is used for well logging, involving deploying sensory tools designed to provide some information about the properties of the well. Electric line operations can be divided in two domains : Reservoir Evaluation (or "open hole"), which operates in the borehole just after it has been drilled, and Production (or "cased hole"), which operates after the well has been completed and lined with a metal pipe (the "casing").

Reservoir evaluation focuses in recording the properties of the formation around the borehole (density, porosity, oil and water saturation, moveability of hydrocarbons, presence of fractures, etc.) while production logging is here to maximize the production of an already-completed well through perforation services, plug setting and production fluid evaluation.

The recent developments of wireline tractors have allowed wireline to be used in highly deviated and horizontal wells, operations which historically have required coiled tubing or drillpipe-conveyed logging (TLC - "tough logging conditions"). These require a source of electrical power and so are always run on E-line. Tractors also enable wireline to expand into the operation of milling by being able to provide rotary motion.

Wireline tools

A wireline tool string can be dozens of feet long with multiple separate tools installed to perform multiple operations at once.

Reservoir Evaluation Tools

Natural Gamma-Ray Tools
The natural Gamma-Ray tools are a family of tools that is designed to measure the naturally occurring Gamma radiation in the earth's formation usually due to Potassium, Uranium, and Thorium. Thus,these tools do not use any radioactive materials unlike nuclear tools which employ a radioactive material. The Natural Gamma-Ray tools employ a radioactive sensor which is usually a scintillation crystal that emits a light pulse proportional to the strength of the Gamma-Ray pulse incident on it. This light pulse is then converted to a current pulse by means of a Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) and then this current pulse is fed to tool electronics for further processing and ultimately, to the surface system to record it. The strength of the received Gamma rays is dependant on, the source emitting Gamma rays, the density of the formation, and the distance between the source and the tool detector.

The log recorded by this family of tools is used to, identify lithology, estimate shale content, and correlation.
Nuclear Tools


Nuclear Tools frequently contain a gamma ray source and a neutron source.

Gamma rays are progressively blocked by increasing material density. Gamma ray count is therefore used to determine the density of the formation, which with the known density of the formation rock gives us a porosity (liquid content in the rock).

Neutrons are neutralized by hydrogen, which is present in both hydrocarbons and water. Neutron count therefore gives us the degree of neutron absorption, an indication of the liquid content of the formation, which in turn gives us porosity.
Resistivity Tools
This tool is important in reservoir evaluation for determining the location of the oil-water contact. Water is far more conductive than hydrocarbons and so will give the reservoir rock it saturates a lower resistivity than rock saturated with hydrocarbons. When analysing a resistivity log, the point where the resistivity undergoes a large change is likely to be the location of the oil-water contact.
Sonic and Ultrasonic Tools
Sampling Tools
Magnetic Nuclear Resonance Tools
Borehole Seismic Tools

Production Tools

Slickline Tools

Jar
This type of tool can extend and be closed rapidly to induce a mechanical shock to the tool string. This shock can induce certain components such as plugs to lock into place and then unlock for retrieving. Spang jars are manually operated by the wireline operator who either lifts or lowers wire rapidly. Power jars use springs or built-in hydraulics to give an upward jarring motion where greater force is required.
Stem
Stem essentially just serves to add weight to the toolstring. The weight may be necessary to overcome the pressure of the well. Some variations of stem, called roller stem, may have wheels built into the tool to allow the tool string to glide more easily down moderately deviated wells.
Pulling tools
These are tools designed for fishing other wireline components, which may have been dropped down hole. All wireline tools are designed with 'fishing necks' on their top side, intended to be easily grabbed by pulling tools. Pulling tools are also used for retrieving seated components such as plugs.
Gauge cutter
The important part of these tools is their bottom end, which is a sharp metal ring of accurately determined size. By allowing for a sharp up and down motion, the metal ring can cut through contamination such as a scale, which may build up in the well bore.
Lead impression block
If an obstruction is found downhole, a lead impression block can be run to help determine its nature. The LIB has a malleable lead base, in which the obstruction can leave an impression when they meet. It is also called Wireline Camera because of its function to mark any object at the downhole.
Bailer
This tool is designed to collect samples of downhole solids for the purposes of cleaning out or just determining the nature of solids such as scale.

Additional Equipment

Logging Head
This is a standard wireline equipment, required to connect the wire to the toolstring, and is used for almost all services.
Tractors
These are electrical tools that can be used to push the toolstring into hole, overcoming wireline's disadvantage of being gravity dependent. These are used for operations in highly deviated and horizontal wells, where gravity is insufficient, even with roller stem. They can push against the side of the wellbore either through the use of wheels or through a wormlike motion.

Wireline apparatus

For oilfield work, the wireline resides on the surface, wound around a large (3 to 10 feet in diameter) spool. Operators may use a portable spool (on the back of a special truck) or a permanent part of the drilling rig. Associated with the spool one finds gearing and a motor used to turn the spool and thus raise and lower the equipment into and out of the well – the winch.

Pressure control during wireline operations

The primary barrier on a wireline rig up is the stuffing box/lubricator envelope, which contains rubber packing elements that seal around the wire as it is run in and pulled out, thereby containing well pressure. A secondary barrier is a wireline valve, which can be closed around the wire if there is a risk of failure of the stuffing box. For braided line, a grease injection head is needed above the wireline valve to ensure a seal despite braided contours of the wire. The tertiary barrier for slickline is the upper master valve on the Xmas tree, which is capable of cutting the wire when closed. For braided line, as it is thicker, a shear-seal valve is needed.

Wireline images


Wireline attached to top of Chistmas Tree

Oil Well Top of Wirleine

Wirline Truck with drum (inside)

Wax being removed off a wireline wax knife

BO shifting tool


See also

cable is one or more wires or optical fibers bound together, typically in a common protective jacket or sheath. The individual wires or fibers inside the jacket may be covered or insulated. Combination cables may contain both electrical wires and optical fibers.
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An oil well is a term for any perforation through the Earth's surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons.

History


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A well intervention, or 'well work', is an activity involving maintenance, modification, repair or completion of an oil or gas well.

Types of well work

Pumping

Main article: Pumping (oil well)

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Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. The word is derived from Greek roots tele = remote, and metron = measure.
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Gas lift is one of a number of processes used to artificially lift oil or water from wells where there is insufficient reservoir pressure to produce the well. The process involves injecting gas through the tubing-casing annulus.
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Well logging, also known as borehole logging is the practice of making a detailed record (log) of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole. The log may be based either on visual inspection of samples brought to the surface (geological
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Coiled tubing refers to metal piping, normally 1" to 2" in diameter, used for interventions in oil and gas wells, which comes spooled on a large drum. The main benefits over wireline are the ability to pump chemicals through the coil and the ability to push it into hole rather than
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Water contact is a term used in the hydrocarbon industry to describe the elevation above which fluids other than water can be found in the pores of a rock.

For example, in a traditional hand-excavated water well, the level at which the water stabilizes represents the water
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Scale can refer to:
  • Scale (computing). See also Scalability.
  • Scale (map)
  • Scale (ratio)
  • Scale factor
  • Scale (spatial)
  • Scale (zoology)

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oil field is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground. Because the oil reservoirs typically extend over a large area, possibly several hundred kilometres across, full exploitation entails multiple wells scattered across the area.
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A drilling rig is a machine which creates holes (usually called boreholes) and/or shafts in the ground. Drilling rigs can be massive structures housing equipment used to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells or they can be small enough to be moved
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winch is a mechanical device that is used to wind up a rope or wire rope (also called "cable"). In its simplest form it consists of a spool and attached crank. The spool can also be called the winch drum.
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In petroleum and natural gas extraction, a christmas tree is an assembly of valves, spools and fittings for an oil well, named for its resemblance to a decorated tree. The term "Christmas Tree" has now become something of a misnomer as complexity has increased and they are more
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The petroleum industry operates on the petroleum market. Petroleum is vital to nearly all other industries, if not industrialized civilization itself, and thus is critical concern to many nations.
..... Click the link for more information.
A well intervention, or 'well work', is an activity involving maintenance, modification, repair or completion of an oil or gas well.

Types of well work

Pumping

Main article: Pumping (oil well)

..... Click the link for more information.
Well logging, also known as borehole logging is the practice of making a detailed record (log) of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole. The log may be based either on visual inspection of samples brought to the surface (geological
..... Click the link for more information.
A perforation in the context of oil wells, refers to a hole punched in the casing or liner of an oil well to connect it to the reservoir. In cased hole completions, the well will be drilled down past the section of the formation desired for production and will have casing or a
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Seaboard International

Corporation
Founded 1974, Houston, Texas
Headquarters Headquartered in Houston, Texas, operates worldwide

Key people Chairman of the Board, President and CEO: J.
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The list of oilfield service companies includes companies that provide services to the petroleum exploration and production industry but that do not typically produce petroleum themselves.
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Coiled tubing refers to metal piping, normally 1" to 2" in diameter, used for interventions in oil and gas wells, which comes spooled on a large drum. The main benefits over wireline are the ability to pump chemicals through the coil and the ability to push it into hole rather than
..... Click the link for more information.


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