World's tallest structures



While determining the world's tallest structure has generally been straightforward, the definition of the world's tallest building or the world's tallest tower is less clear. The disputes generally centers on what should be counted as a building or a tower, and what is being measured.

In terms of absolute height, the tallest structures are currently the dozens of radio and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 meters (about 2,000 feet) in height. There is, however, some debate about:
  • whether structures under construction should be included in the list
  • whether structures rising out of water should have their below-water height included.
For towers, there is debate over:
  • whether guy-wire-supported structures should be counted
For buildings, there is debate over:
  • whether communication towers with observation galleries should be considered habitable buildings.
  • whether only habitable height is considered.
  • whether roof-top antennas should be considered towards height of buildings; with particular interest in whether components that look like spires can be either classified as antennas or architectural detail.
These debates will likely lose some relevance in 2009, as the Burj Dubai, a building currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, is planned to exceed all other existing structures in height, including guyed TV towers.

Tallest structures

The tallest standing structure is the KVLY-TV mast 30 miles north of Fargo, North Dakota United States, at  m ( ft). It is a transmission antenna, consisting of a bare metal structure supported by guy-wires.

Transmission antennas of this type are not usually included with the world's tallest buildings because they are not self-supporting. The issue is further complicated if all manmade habitable structures are considered. Under that criterion it is possible to claim 'tallest structure' records for deep mine-shafts, or the Mohole drilling rig, which can be several miles (8-10 km) in vertical length.

Enlarge picture
The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario was the world's tallest freestanding structure on land from 1975 until the Burj Dubai surpassed it in 2007, rising  m ( ft). It is currently the world's tallest completed freestanding structure on land.
The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, standing at  m ( ft), was the world's tallest freestanding structure on land from 1976 until September 12, 2007, when it was overtaken in height by the under construction Burj Dubai.[1] It has the world's highest public observation deck at  m ( ft). It remains the world's tallest completed freestanding structure, pending the Burj Dubai's completion (projected for 2008).

The Petronius Platform stands  m ( ft), leading some to claim it as the tallest freestanding structure in the world. However, as this oil and natural gas platform is partially supported by wires, critics argue that it is not freestanding, and the below-water height should not be counted, in the same manner as underground 'height' is not taken into account in buildings.

The Troll A platform is  m ( ft), without any part of that height being supported by wires.

Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan is currently the world's tallest inhabited building in three out the four main categories that are commonly measured: at  m ( ft) as measured to its architectural height as well as roof height  m ( ft) and highest occupied floor  m ( ft). The Sears Tower is highest in the last category: the highest current height to the top of antenna of any building in the world at  m ( ft).

However, the Burj Dubai, which is scheduled for completion in 2008 or 2009, will break most existing records, being taller than any building in all four categories by a wide margin. The CN Tower will maintain its record of the world's highest observation deck as Burj Dubai's deck will be at  m ( ft).[2] While the final height has not been released to the public, the developers state that the building will be at least  m ( ft). The 'Symbol of Dubai', will have more than 160 floors, 56 elevators, apartments, shops, swimming pools, spas, corporate suites, and will be  m ( ft) tall. With the spire included, the final height will be more than 817 m (2680 ft) , but Emaar, the developer, is keeping structural details secret due to competition for the "world's tallest" with other proposed buildings, including the nearby Al Burj. [3] As of October 8 2007, the tower's developers reported the Burj Dubai's height to be 574.5 m (1885 ft), with 154 completed floors[4], surpassing Taipei 101 as the tallest high-rise building in the world.[5] As of September 14, 2007, The Burj Dubai is the world's tallest freestanding structure at 555.3m (1821.85 ft) height and 150 stories. Burj Dubai is now taller by 2 meters than the previous tallest freestanding structure, the CN Tower in Toronto, which held the record since 1976. Burj Dubai is also set to surpass the KVLY/KTHI television mast in Blanchard, North Dakota, which is the tallest structure on earth at 628.8 meters.

Tallest structure by category

Due to the disagreements over how to measure and classify structures, engineers have created various definitions for categories of buildings and other structures. One measure includes the absolute height of a building, another includes only spires and other permanent architectural features, but not antennas. The tradition of including the spire on top of a building and not including the antenna dates back to the rivalry between the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street. A modern-day example is that the antenna on top of the Sears tower are not considered part of its architectural height, while the spires on top of the Petronas towers are counted.





Category Structure Country City Height (m) Height (ft)
TV MastKVLY-TV mast United StatesBlanchard628.82,063
Skyscraper (under construction) - all categoriesBurj Dubai
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Dubai574.51,885[6]
TowerCN Tower CanadaToronto, Ontario553.31,815
Skyscraper (completed only) - to top of antennaSears Tower United StatesChicago527.31,730
Skyscraper (completed only) - to top of spireTaipei 101 Republic of China (Taiwan)Taipei509.21,671
Twin TowersPetronas Twin Towers MalaysiaKuala Lumpur, Malaysia4521,482
Skyscraper (completed only) - to building roofTaipei 101 Republic of China (Taiwan)Taipei449.21,474
Skyscraper (completed only) - to highest occupied floorTaipei 101 Republic of China (Taiwan)Taipei439.21,441
ChimneyGRES-2 Power Station KazakhstanEkibastusz419.71,377
Lattice towerKiev TV Tower UkraineKiev3851,263
Partially guyed towerGerbrandy Tower NetherlandsIJsselstein366.81,203
Electricity PylonYangtze River Crossing People's Republic of ChinaJiangyin346.51,137
Bridge pillarMillau Viaduct People's Republic of ChinaMillau3421,122
Freestanding Steel TowerTokyo Tower JapanMinato-ku, Tokyo332.61,091
Iron TowerEiffel Tower People's Republic of ChinaParis3241,063
Five-sided buildingJPMorgan Chase Tower United StatesHouston3051,002
DamNurek Dam TajikistanNurek300984[7]
Concrete damGrande Dixence Dam SwitzerlandVal d'Hérens285935
Micro Wave TowerSentech Tower
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Johannesburg234768
MinaretHassan II Mosque MoroccoCasablanca210689
Wind turbineFuhrländer Wind Turbine Laasow GermanyLaasow, Brandenburg205673
Cooling TowerNiederaussem Power Station GermanyNiederaussem200656
MonumentGateway Arch United StatesSt. Louis, Missouri192630
90° twisted buildingTurning Torso SwedenMalmö190623
Inclined structure
Stadium
Montreal Olympic Stadium CanadaMontreal, Quebec175574
Masonry towerSan Jacinto Monument United StatesLa Porte, Texas174570
Church BuildingChicago Temple Building United StatesChicago173568
ObeliskWashington Monument United StatesWashington, D.C.169.3555.5
Masonry buildingMole Antonelliana ItalyTorino167.5549.5
Masonry buildingPhiladelphia City Hall United StatesPhiladelphia167548
Observation wheelThe Star of Nanchang People's Republic of ChinaNanchang162531
Church towerUlm Cathedral GermanyUlm161528
Industrial hallVehicle Assembly Building United StatesKennedy Space Center160525
Steel TowerBlackpool Tower United KingdomBlackpool158518
Memorial crossSanta Cruz del Valle de los Caídos SpainEl Escorial152.4500
TombGreat Pyramid of Giza EgyptGiza, Cairo138.8
originally 146.6
455.2
480.9
Air traffic control towerSuvarnabhumi Airport Control Tower ThailandBangkok, Thailand132.2433.7
Roller coasterKingda Ka United StatesJackson, New Jersey138.98456
Flagpole, free-standingAqaba Flagpole JordanAqaba132430
Concrete TowerPirelli Tower ItalyMilan127.1417
Equilateral PentagonBaltimore World Trade Center United StatesBaltimore123.5405
Statue (including pedestal)Ushiku Daibutsu Bronze Buddha Statue JapanUshiku120416
Storage siloHenninger Turm GermanyFrankfurt120394
SculptureSpire of Dublin IrelandDublin120393
Light advertisementBayer Cross Leverkusen GermanyLeverkusen118387
Wooden structureGliwice Radio Tower PolandGliwice118387
Aerial tramway support towerPillar of third section of Gletscherbahn Kaprun AustriaKaprun113.6373
Clock TowerClock Tower, Palace of Westminster United KingdomLondon96.3316
Pre-modern Chinese pagodaLiaodi Pagoda People's Republic of ChinaDing County, Hebei84275
Lantern TowerBoston Stump United KingdomBoston, Lincolnshire83.05272
Statue (not including pedestal)Mamayev Kurgan RussiaVolgograd82269
Brick minaretQutub Minar IndiaDelhi72.5237.8
Monolithic obeliskTuthmosis II Obelisk ItalySan Giovanni in Laterano36118.1

Tallest destroyed structures by category, not surpassed by existing structures

There are some destroyed architectural structures which were taller than the tallest existing structure of their type.

Category Structure Country City Height (m) Height (ft) Remarks
Supported structureWarsaw Radio Mast PolandGąbin646.382,121completed in 1974, collapsed on August 8th, 1991
Wooden structureMühlacker Wood Radio Tower GermanyMühlacker190623completed in 1934, destroyed on April 6th, 1945 by Germans to prevent usage by the Allies of World War II.
Masonry buildingMole Antonelliana ItalyTorino167.5549.5spire destroyed by hurricane in 1953
Pre-Industrial Era buildingLincoln Cathedral United KingdomLincoln160524completed in 1311, spire blown off in 1549

Tallest building by function

Category StructureCountryCityArchitectural top
mft
Mixed Use*Burj Dubai**
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Dubai575 (of est. 818)1,885 (of est. 2,684)
OfficeTaipei 101 TaiwanTaipei5091,671
Mixed Use* (completed only)John Hancock Center United StatesChicago3441,127
ResidentialQ1 AustraliaGold Coast, Queensland322.51,059
HotelRose Tower***
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Dubai3331,093
Hotel (completed only)Burj Al Arab
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Dubai3211,053
EducationalMoscow State University RussiaMoscow240787
HospitalGuy's Hospital United KingdomLondon, England143468
LibraryW. E. B. DuBois Library United StatesAmherst, Massachusetts116381
CinemaCineworld, Renfrew Street United KingdomGlasgow, Scotland61.8203


* Mixed Use is defined as having both residential and office space.

** As Burj Dubai is still under construction and not yet inhabitable, it currently does not serve a specific function. Upon completion, it will serve as a mixed use building.

*** Although the Rose Tower is complete, it is not currently habited. Once the hotel opens for use will it become the world's tallest building used as a hotel.

Tallest buildings

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Comparison of top skyscrapers with measurements to top of antenna
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Current skyscrapers compared with notable proposed skyscrapers.
Up until 1998 the tallest building status was essentially uncontested. Counting buildings as structures with floors throughout, and with antenna masts excluded, the Sears Tower in Chicago was considered the tallest. When the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were built, controversy arose because the spire extended nine meters higher than the roof of the Sears Tower. Excluding the spire, the Petronas Towers are not taller than the Sears Tower. At their convention in Chicago, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) reduced the Sears Tower from world's tallest and pronounced it not second tallest, but third, and pronounced Petronas as world's tallest. This action caused a considerable amount of controversy, so CTBUH defined four categories in which the world's tallest building can be measured:
  1. Height to the structural or architectural top (including spires and pinnacles, but not antennas, masts or flagpoles)
  2. Height to the highest occupied floor
  3. Height to the top of the roof
  4. Height to the top of antenna


The height is measured from the pavement level of the main entrance. At the time, the Sears Tower held first place in the second and third categories. Petronas held the first category, and the original World Trade Towers held the fourth. Within months, however, a new antenna mast was placed on the Sears Tower, giving it hold of the fourth category. On April 20, 2004, the Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was completed. Its completion gave it the world record for the first three categories. On July 212007 it was announced that the Burj Dubai had surpassed Taipei 101 in height, reaching 512 m (1,680 feet) tall. However Burj Dubai is still under construction.

Today, Taipei 101 leads in the first category with 509 m (1,671 feet); in the second category with an occupied floor at 439 m (1,441 feet); and in the third category with 449 m (1,474 feet). The first category was formerly held by the Petronas Twin Towers with 452 m (1,483 feet), and before that by Sears Tower with 442 m (1,451 feet). The second and third categories were held by the Sears Tower, with 412 m (1,351 feet) and 442 m (1,451 feet) respectively.

The Sears Tower still leads in the fourth category with 527 m (1,729 feet), previously held by the World Trade Center until the extension of the Chicago tower's western broadcast antenna in 2000, over a year prior to the Trade Center's destruction in 2001. Its antenna mast included, 1 World Trade Center measured 526 m (1,727 feet). The World Trade Center became the world's tallest buildings to be destroyed or demolished; indeed, its site entered the record books twice on September 11, 2001, in that category, replacing the Singer Building, which once stood a block from the WTC site.

The Ostankino Tower and the CN Tower are excluded from these categories because they are not "habitable buildings", which are defined as frame structures made with floors and walls throughout.

History of record holders in each CTBUH category

Date (Event)Architectural topHighest occupied floorRooftopAntenna
2008: Burj Dubai est. completionBurj DubaiBurj DubaiBurj DubaiBurj Dubai
2003: Taipei 101 completedTaipei 101Taipei 101Taipei 101Sears Tower
2000: Sears Tower antenna extensionPetronas TowersSears TowerSears TowerSears Tower
1998: Petronas Towers completedPetronas TowersSears TowerSears TowerWorld Trade Center
1996: CTBUH defines categoriesSears TowerSears TowerSears TowerWorld Trade Center

World's tallest freestanding structure on land

Freestanding structures include observation towers, monuments and other structures not generally considered to be "buildings", but excludes supported structures such as guyed masts and ocean drilling platforms. (See also history of tallest skyscrapers.)

The world's tallest freestanding structure on land is defined as the tallest self-supporting man-made structure that stands above ground. This definition is different from that of world's tallest building or world's tallest structure based on the percent of the structure that is occupied and whether or not it is self-supporting or supported by exterior cables. Likewise, this definition does not count structures that are built underground or on the seabed, such as the Petronius Platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Visit world's tallest structure by category for a list of various other definitions.

As of September 2007, the tallest freestanding structure on land is the still under construction Burj Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building, which now stands at 564.9 meters (1,853 ft), surpassed the height of the previous record holder, the 553.33 meter (1,815 ft) CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, on September 12, 2007. It is scheduled to be completed in 2009, and is planned to rise to a height of over 800 meters (2,625 ft).

History

The following is a list of structures that have held the title as the tallest freestanding structure on land.

Held record Name and Location Constructed Height (m) Height (ft) Notes
From To
c. 2600 BCc. 2570 BCRed Pyramid of Sneferu, Egyptc. 2600 BC105345 
c. 2570 BCc. AD 1300Great Pyramid of Giza, Egyptc. 2570 BC146481By AD 1439, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (455 ft).
c. 13001549Lincoln Cathedral, England1092–1311160525The central spire was destroyed in a storm in 1549. While the reputed height of 525 ft is doubted by A.F. Kendrick,[8] other sources agree on this height.
15491625St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn, Estonia1438–1519159522The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1625 and was rebuilt several times. The current height is 123 m
16251874Strasbourg Cathedral, France1439142469
18741876St. Nikolai, Hamburg, Germany1846–1874147483
18761880Cathédrale Notre Dame, Rouen, France1202–1876151495 
18801884Cologne Cathedral, Germany1248–1880157515
18841889Washington Monument, United States1884169555 
18891930Eiffel Tower, Paris, France1889300986The addition of a telecommunications tower in the 1950s brought the overall height to 324 m.
19301931Chrysler Building, New York, United States1928–19303191,046
19311967Empire State Building, New York, United States1930–19313811,250 
19671975Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia1963–19675371,762Remains the tallest in Europe
19752007CN Tower, Toronto, Canada1973–19765531,815The CN Tower also features the highest public observation deck in the world.
2007Burj Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates2004–2008575*1,885*The Burj surpassed the height of CN Tower in September 2007. Though still officially under construction, it is estimated to rise higher than 800 meters (2,625 ft) when completed in 2008.


Notable mentions include the Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, built in the third century BC, and estimated between 115 to 135 meters (383–440 ft). It was the world's tallest non-pyramidal building for many centuries. Another notable mention includes the Jetavanaramaya stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, which was built in the third century, and was similarly tall at 122 meters (400 ft). These were both the world's tallest or second tallest non-pyramidal buildings for over a thousand years.

The tallest secular building between the collapse of the Pharos and the erection of the Washington Monument may have been the Torre del Mangia in Siena, which is 102 m tall, and was constructed in the first half of the fourteenth century, and the 97 m tall Torre degli Asinelli in Bologna, also Italy, built between 1109 and 1119.

* This is the current height of Burj Dubai, as of October 2007. When completed, it is expected to rise over  m ( ft)

Timeline of guyed structures on land

As most of the tallest structures are guyed masts and the absolute height record of architectural structures on land is since 1954 kept by them, here is a timeline of world's tallest guyed masts, since the beginning of radio technology.

As many large guyed masts were destroyed at the end of World War II, the dates for the years between 1945 and 1950 may be incorrect. If the 365.25 meter (1,200 ft) tall central tower of NSS Annapolis was already built before 1945, it was the tallest guyed structure between 1945 and 1950.

Held record Name and Location Constructed Height (m) Height (ft) Notes
From To
 1913 1920Central mast of Eilvese transmitter, Eilvese, Germany 1913250820Mast was divided in 145 meters by an insulator, demolished in 1931
 1920 1923Central masts of Nauen Transmitting Station, Nauen, Germany 19202608532 masts, demolished in 1946
 1923 1933Masts of Ruiselede transmitter, Ruiselede, Belgium 19232879428 masts, destroyed in 1940
 1933 1939Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary 19333141,031Blaw-Knox Tower, insulated against ground, destroyed in 1945, afterwards rebuilt
 1939 1945Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster, Herzberg (Elster), Germany 19393351,099insulated against ground, dismantled in 1945
 1945 1948Blaw-Knox Tower Liblice, Liblice, Czech Republic 1936280.4920Demolished on October 17th, 1972 by explosives. Replaced in 1976 by 2 355 masts.
 1948 1949WIVB-TV Tower, Colden, New York, USA 1948321.91,056
 1949 1950Longwave transmitter Raszyn, Raszyn, Poland 19493351,099insulated against ground
 1950 1954Forestport Tower, Forestport, New York, USA 1950371.251,218insulated against ground
 1954 1959Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA 1954480.51,576 
 1956 1959KOBR-TV Tower, Caprock, New Mexico, USA 1956490.71,610Collapsed in 1960
 1959 1960WGME TV Tower, Raymond, Maine, USA 19594951,624
 1960 1961KFVS TV Mast, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, USA 1960511.11,677
 1961 1963WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower, Columbus, Georgia, USA 19625331,749Located in Cusseta, Georgia
 1963 1963KTAL TV Tower, Vivian, Louisiana, USA 1961534.31,753
 1963 1974KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA 1963628.82,063
 1974 1991Warsaw Radio Mast, Gąbin, Poland 1974646.42,121mast radiator insulated against ground, collapsed in 1991
 1991 KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA 1963628.82,063

Tallest structures, freestanding structures, and buildings

See also: List of tallest buildings in the world, List of tallest structures in the world
  • The structures list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type. Only the four tallest are listed, as more than fifty US TV masts have stated heights of 600-610m (1969-2000 ft).
  • The freestanding structures list uses pinnacle height and includes structures over  m ( ft) that do not use guy- wires or other external supports.
  • The building list uses architectural height (excluding antennas) and includes only buildings, defined as consisting of habitable floors. Both of these follow CTBUH guidelines. All supertall buildings (300 m and higher) are listed.
  • Seven buildings appear on the freestanding structures list with higher heights, given the different measurement specifications of the two lists.
  • Collapsed historical structures are not included.
Rank Name and location Year
completed
Architectural top[9] Floors
Structures
1KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, United States1963 m ( ft)
2KXJB-TV mast, Galesburg, North Dakota, United States1998 m ( ft)
3KXTV/KOVR Tower, Walnut Grove, California, United States2000 m ( ft)
4Petronius Platform, Gulf of Mexico2000 m ( ft)
Freestanding structures
1Burj Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (under construction)2009 m ( ft)
 m ( ft) (predicted)
162 (predicted)
2CN Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada1976 m ( ft)
3Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia1967 m ( ft)
4Sears Tower, Chicago, United States1974 m ( ft)110
5Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan2003 m ( ft)101
6Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China (under construction)2008 m ( ft)101
7Oriental Pearl Tower, Shanghai, People's Republic of China1996 m ( ft)
8John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States1969457 m (1,500 ft)100
9Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia1998 m ( ft)88
9Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia1998 m ( ft)88
11Empire State Building, New York City, United States1936449 (1,472 ft)102
12Milad Tower, Tehran, Iran2007 m ( ft)
13Kuala Lumpur Tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia1995 m ( ft)
14Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, People's Republic of China1998 m ( ft)88
15Chimney of GRES-2 Power Station, Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan1987 m ( ft)
16Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China2003 m ( ft)88
17Tianjin Radio and Television Tower, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China1991 m ( ft)
18Central TV Tower, Bejing, People’s Republic of China1992 m ( ft)
Buildings
1Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan2003 m ( ft)101
2Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China (topped out)2008 m ( ft)101
3Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia1998 m ( ft)88
3Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia1998 m ( ft)88
5Sears Tower, Chicago, United States1974 m ( ft)110
6Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, People's Republic of China1998 m ( ft)88
7Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China2003 m ( ft)88
8CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China1997 m ( ft)80
9Shun Hing Square, Shenzhen, People's Republic of China1996 m ( ft)69
10Empire State Building, New York, United States1931 m ( ft)102
11Central Plaza, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China1992 m ( ft)78
12Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China1990 m ( ft)70
13Emirates Office Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates2000 m ( ft)54
14Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung, Taiwan1997 m ( ft)85
15Aon Center, Chicago, United States1973 m ( ft)83
16The Center, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China1998 m ( ft)73
17John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States1969 m ( ft)100
18Rose Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (topped out)2007 m ( ft)72
18Shimao International Plaza, Shanghai, People's Republic of China2006 m ( ft)60
20Minsheng Bank Building, Wuhan, People's Republic of China2007 m ( ft)68
21 Ryugyong Hotel, Pyongyang, North Korea (topped out)1992 m ( ft)105
22Q1 Tower, Gold Coast City, Australia2005 m ( ft)78
23Burj al Arab Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates1999 m ( ft)60
24Chrysler Building, New York, United States1930 m ( ft)77
24Nina Tower I, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China2007 m ( ft)80
24New York Times Building, New York, United States2007 m ( ft)52
27Bank of America Plaza, Atlanta, United States1992 m ( ft)55
28U.S. Bank Tower, Los Angeles, United States1989 m ( ft)73
29Menara Telekom, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia2001 m ( ft)55
30Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates2000 m ( ft)56
31AT&T Corporate Center, Chicago, United States1989 m ( ft)60
32JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston, United States1982 m ( ft)75
33Baiyoke Tower II, Bangkok, Thailand1997 m ( ft)85
34Two Prudential Plaza, Chicago, United States1990 m ( ft)64
35Wells Fargo Plaza, Houston, United States1983 m ( ft)71
35Kingdom Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia2002 m ( ft)41
37Aspire Tower, Doha, Qatar2007 m ( ft)36
38Eureka Tower, Melbourne, Australia2005 m ( ft)92


Source: Emporis

Future record-breaking structures

Numerous supertall skyscrapers are in various stages of proposal, planning, or construction. Each of these, depending on the order of completion, could become the world's tallest building or structure in at least one category:

Under construction

  • Burj Dubai in Dubai, UAE is expected to be an  m ( ft) tall skyscraper. It is currently under construction, and as of October, 2007, it is  m ( ft) tall, with 154 completed floors. Upon completion (projected for 2009) this will be the tallest manmade structure of any kind in history. However, it might not hold that record for long; see the proposals section below.
  • The Russia Tower, under construction in Moscow, Russia, is expected to be  m ( ft) with 118 floors.
  • The Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower, being built in Guangzhou, China, is expected to be  m ( ft) tall.
  • The  m ( ft), 150 floor Chicago Spire (formerly Fordham Spire) is currently under construction in Chicago. If completed, it would surpass the nearby Sears Tower as the tallest tower in North America, and would be the tallest all-residential building in the world. [10] Construction began in June 2007, and is expected to be completed in late 2010.
  • The  m ( ft) 108 floor (82 for office and occupied space) Freedom Tower of the new World Trade Center began construction in August 2006. [11] It is expected to completed in 2010, with an opening in early 2011. If completed, it would stand as the tallest building in New York City. It would also stand as the tallest building in the United States if completed before the Chicago Spire.
  • The  m ( ft) tall, 101 floor Shanghai World Financial Center in Shanghai, People's Republic of China has a proposed completion date of 2008. The SWFC had reached its final height in September 2007.
  • The  m ( ft) International Commerce Centre in Hong Kong, is scheduled for completion in 2009. As of August, 2007, the construction had reached 77 floors and  m ( ft).
  • The  m ( ft) (roof will be at  m ( ft)) Burj al Alam in Dubai, is scheduled for completion in 2010. When completed, it will have 108 stories and have the 5th highest roof in the world.

Proposed

  • Al Burj is a proposed skyscraper, also planned for Dubai, UAE, expected to be approximately  m ( ft) tall.[12]
  • Murjan Tower is a Swedish company's proprosal for a supertall skyscraper in Bahrain. Designed by the Danish architect Henning Larsens Tegnestue A/S, it is expected to be  m ( ft) in height and comprise 200 floors. [13]
  • The proposed Mubarak al-Kabir Tower in Madinat al-Hareer (City Of Silk), (Kuwait) is projected to be  m ( ft) in height.
  • Noida Tower  m ( ft) is proposed for a small metro city in Delhi's NCR region with a target date for completion of 2013.
  • Incheon Tower is a proposal in Korea for a  m ( ft) tall building.
  • Sumida Tower  m ( ft) has been proposed in Sumida, Tokyo, Japan. It is planned to be finished by 2011. [14]
  • The Port Tower Complex is a proposed  m ( ft), Rs. 20 billion ($330 million (USD)) project being financed by the Karachi Port Trust.[15] It is projected for completion by 2013.
  • The Jakarta Tower (Menara Jakarta) in Jakarta, Indonesia is projected to be a  m ( ft) skyscraper in Kemayoran, Central Jakarta Jakarta, Indonesia. Site preparation began in the 1990s, but construction never began and the project has been on hold since 2003.

Never-built record-breaking structures

  • Watkin's Tower in Wembley, London was planned in 1891 to surpass the Eiffel Tower by 50 m (164 ft), but construction stopped before that height was reached due to unstable land. The tower remnants were dismantled in the 1900s, and the site was redeveloped as Wembley Stadium.
  • During the Russian October Revolution of 1917, Vladimir Tatlin designed a structure named The Monument to the Third International, which was to serve as the international headquarters of the Komintern. Better known as the Tatlin Tower, the structure was to rise to a height of 400 m (1312 ft), which would have made it by far the tallest building in the world at that time, but the time and resource shortages that resulted from the Russian Civil War halted the project.
  • The Palace of Soviets in Moscow, planned in 1932, was to be 415 m (including a 100 m Lenin statue), and would have been the tallest building in the world at the time if completed. Construction was halted during World War II, during which the uncompleted structure was partially dismantled; its foundations were later to serve as the world's largest open-air swimming pool before themselves being razed in 1995.
  • The Illinois, envisioned by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1956, was to be a mile high (1609 m / 5280 ft) skyscraper in Chicago.
  • Eaton's / John Maryon Tower was a planned 503 m (1650 ft) (686m to spire) tall building in Toronto in 1971.
  • The Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle in Chicago was to be 610 m (2001 ft)[16] tall in 1988.
  • Until late 1995, there were plans to rebuild the collapsed 646 m (2119 ft) Warsaw Radio Mast to its previous height on the same site, using the basements of the old mast. Although some refurbishment of the basements started, work was canceled after violent protests by local residents, who feared harmful radiation effects from the high-power transmitter served by the antenna. A new transmission facility with two smaller masts measuring 330 and 289 m was built as a replacement in 1998-99 at Solec Kujawski.
  • 7 South Dearborn in Chicago was planned in 1999 to be 610 m (2001 ft).
  • Construction was scheduled to begin in 2006 on the now-canceled Strait of Messina Bridge. It would have been the world's largest suspension bridge as well as the tallest, as the proposed height of the two towers, 382.6 m (1255 ft), exceeded the 343 m (1125 ft) of current record-holder Millau Viaduct in France.
  • Construction was cancelled on the Grollo Tower (named after the architect) in Melbourne's developing Dockland precinct in April 2001 after Melbourne's Docklands Authority ruled it out of the tender for development of the Batman Hill's precinct. The area is now occupied by a mixture of smaller commercial and residential buildings. The Grollo Tower would have been the world's tallest building at the time at 560m (1837ft) tall.
  • A series of super-tall sky-scrapers were planned for the major Australian cities of Melbourne, Brisbane, Sydney and Perth from 1985-95 but were all cancelled. The plans included (in order of height) the Grollo Tower (mentioned above), Bribane Central Tower (450m/1476ft, Brisbane), Minuzzo Tower (450m/1476ft, Brisbane), CBD-1 (445m/1459ft, Sydney), Melbourne Plaza (338m/1109ft, Melbourne), City Tower (305m100ft, Sydney) and the Westralia Tower (287m/941ft, Perth). The buildings would have been some of the tallest buildings in the world at the time, but were cancelled mainly due to their unnecessary heights which would have dwarfed all surrounding buildings

References

1. ^ [1]
2. ^ CTV.ca Dubai building surpasses CN Tower in height, September 13, 2007
3. ^ BBC News, Dubai skyscraper world's tallest
4. ^ Current height as reported at www.burjdubai.com/
5. ^ Burjdubaiskyscarper.com
6. ^ Dubai tower now world's tallest free-standing structure. Brietbart. Retrieved on 2007-09-13.
7. ^ Highest Dams (World and U.S.) (chart). 1998 ICOLD World Register of Dams. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
8. ^ [2]
9. ^ Height for inhabited buildings with floors; does not include TV towers and antennas.
10. ^ [3]
11. ^ [4]
12. ^ Nakheel designs 1km-high tower. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
13. ^ [5]
14. ^ [6]
15. ^ [7]
16. ^ [8]

External links

Nonbuilding structures, also referred to simply as structures, are those not designed for continuous human occupancy. The term is used by architects and civil engineers to distinctly identify structures that are not buildings.
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tower blocks. In the United States, the now-destroyed World Trade Center had the nickname the Twin Towers, a name shared with the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur.
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The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
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A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes,
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observation tower is a structure used to view events from a long distance and to create a full 360 degree range of vision. They are usually at least 20 meters tall and made from stone, iron, and wood. Many modern towers are also used as TV towers, restaurants, or churches.
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antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. In other words, antennas convert radio frequency electrical currents into electromagnetic waves and vice versa.
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spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. Etymologically, the word is derived from Anglo-Saxon, so it is related to "spear," rather than the Romance languages and "spirit.
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list of tallest structures in the world, past and present of any type. Most of the tallest structures are television broadcasting masts, followed by a mix of the taller tower-type structures (like the CN Tower) and the taller high rise buildings (like the Sears Tower).
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CN Tower, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is a communications and tourist tower standing 553.33 metres (1,815 ft) tall.[1] It surpassed the height of the Ostankino Tower while still under construction in 1975, becoming the tallest free-standing structure on
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