xiaolian

Xiaolian (Simplified Chinese: 孝廉, literally Filially Pious and Incorrupt), was a standard of nominating civil officers started by Emperor Wu of Han in 134 BC. It lasted until its replacement by the imperial examination system during the Sui Dynasty.

Under the advice of Dong Zhongshu, Emperor Wu ordered each district to recommend one filially pious and one incorrupt candidate for civil offices. Later the nomination became proportional. Emperor He of Han changed the proportion to one candidate for every 200,000 residents, and one for every 100,000 residents in ethnic minority regions. The nominator was also responsible if the nominee was charged with corruption, and could be punished if he refused to nominate qualified individuals.

After the Han dynasty, high positions were usually normainated in the Nine-rank system, and Xiaolian became increasingly unimportant. During the Tang dynasty, both systems were replaced by the imperial examination system.
Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: 汉武帝; Traditional Chinese: 漢武帝; Pinyin: hànwǔdì
..... Click the link for more information.
This page contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.


The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese:
..... Click the link for more information.
Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Suí cháo; 581-618 AD[]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China.
..... Click the link for more information.
Dong Zhongshu (Chinese: 董仲舒; Pinyin: Dŏng Zhòngshū; Wade-Giles: Tung Chung-shu
..... Click the link for more information.
Emperor He of Han, ch. 漢和帝, py. hàn hé dì, wg. Han Ho-ti, (79 - February 13 106) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty who ruled from 88 to 106. He was the 4th emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty.
..... Click the link for more information.
Ethnic minorities in China refer to the non-Han Chinese population in mainland China and Taiwan. The People's Republic of China (PRC) officially recognizes 55 ethnic minority groups within China in addition to the Han majority.
..... Click the link for more information.
Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝
..... Click the link for more information.
The Nine rank system (ch. 九品中正制 or 九品官人法), or much less commonly, Nine grade controller system was a civil service nomination system during the Three Kingdoms and the Southern and Northern Dynasties in
..... Click the link for more information.

..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.