Yingzao Fashi

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Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers, Yingzao Fashi
The Yingzao Fashi (Chinese:營造法式; 'Treatise on Architectural Methods' or 'State Building Standards') is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the Chinese author Li Jie (1065–1110),[1] the Directorate of Buildings and Construction during the mid Song Dynasty of China. A promising architect, he revised many older treatises on architecture from 1097 to 1100. By 1100, he had completed his own architectural work which he presented to Emperor Zhezong of Song.[2][3] The emperor's successor, Emperor Huizong of Song, had the book published in 1103 in order to provide a unified set of architectural standards for builders, architects, and literate craftsmen as well as for the engineering agencies of the central government.[3][2][4]

With his printed book becoming a noted success throughout the country, Li Jie was promoted by Huizong as the Director of Palace Buildings.[5] Thereafter Li became well-known for the oversight in construction of administrative offices, palace apartments, gates and gate-towers, the ancestral temple of the Song Dynasty, along with numerous Buddhist temples.[3] In 1145 a second edition of Li's book was published by Wang Huan.[4]

The treatise

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Tenon and mortice work of tie beams and cross beams, Yingzao Fashi
Li developed a standard 8-point grading system for different sizes of timber elements. The system was known as the cai-fen system of units and could be universally applied to buildings.[6] Some of the book used material from preexisting architectural writings, but most of the book is documentation of the inherited traditions of craftsmen and architects passed down by word of mouth.[2] Li's book provides a glossary of technical terms that includes mathematical formulae. He incorporated topography in his estimations for buildings on various types of sites.[5] He also estimated the monetary costs of hiring laborers of different skill levels and types of expertise in crafts. His estimates are on the basis of a day's work and include the materials needed, taking into account the season in which the work is done.[5]

Li's work incorporates building rules and regulations, accounting information, standards for materials used in construction, and the classification of various crafts.[8] The 34 chapters in the book specify in detail the units of measurement,[9] the construction of moats and fortifications,[10] and standards for stonework[10] as well as for greater and lesser woodwork.[10] It includes the specifications (and illustrations) for constructing bracketing units with inclined arms and joints for columns and beams,[11] as well as directions for wood carving,[10] turning and drilling,[10] sawing,[10] bamboo work,[10] tiling,[10] wall building,[10] painting and decoration,[10] and the formulas for decorative paints, glazes and various coatings.[9] Included are the mixing proportions for mortars in masonry,[5]brickwork[10] and glazed tile.[10] The book provides hand-drawn illustrations of all the practices and standards.[9] He outlined structural carpentry in great detail, providing standard dimensional measurements for all the components.

Although others were written and compiled beforehand, Li's book is the oldest existing technical manual on Chinese architecture to have survived intact and in its entirety.[1]

See also


1. ^ Guo, 1-3.
2. ^ Guo, 4.
3. ^ Needham, Volume 4, 84.
4. ^ Guo 6.
5. ^ Guo, 5.
6. ^ Guo, 6-7.
7. ^ Guo, 4.
8. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 84-85.
9. ^ Guo, 1.
10. ^ Needham, Volume 4, 85
11. ^ Guo, 2.
12. ^ Guo, 5.
13. ^ Guo, 1-3.


  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 3. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • Guo, Qinghua. "Yingzao Fashi: Twelfth-Century Chinese Building Manual," Architectural History: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain (Volume 41 1998): 1-13.

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Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: Hànyǔ; 华语/華語, Huáyǔ; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family.
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China (Traditional Chinese:
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The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; Pinyin: Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao) was a ruling dynasty in China between 960–1279 AD; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms era, and
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Emperor Zhezong (January 4, 1076 – February 23, 1100) was the seventh emperor of the Song Dynasty of China. His personal name was Zhao4 Xu1. He reigned from 1085 to 1100.

Zhezong was the son of Emperor Shenzong.
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Emperor Huizong (November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of China, with a personal life spent amidst luxury, sophistication and art but ending in tragedy.
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artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft.

Artisans were the dominant producers of goods before the Industrial Revolution.
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Ancestor Worship, also known as Ancestor Veneration or Ancestorism, is a religious practice based on the belief that deceased family members have a continued existence, take an interest in the affairs of the world, and possess the ability to influence the fortune of
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Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas sorted by location.


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glossary is a list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book which are either newly introduced or at least uncommon.
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Topography (Greek topos, "place", and graphia, "writing") is the study of Earth's surface features or those of planets, moons, and asteroids.

In a broader sense, topography is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also
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units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to this day. Disparate systems of measurement used to be very common. Now there is a global standard, the International System (SI) of units, the modern form of the metric system.
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moat is deep, broad trench, usually filled with water, that surrounds a structure, installation, or town, normally to provide it with a preliminary line of defense.

Historic Uses

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Fortifications are military constructions and buildings designed for defense in warfare. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs.
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Stone carving is an ancient activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone. Owing to the permanence of the material, evidence can be found that even the earliest societies indulged in some form of stone work.
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Brackets are punctuation marks used in pairs to set apart or interject text within other text. With respect to computer science, the term is sometimes said to only strictly apply to the square or box type.
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Released October 31, 2007
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Mami Kawada singles chronology

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(2007) JOINT

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A column in architecture and structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
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Beam may refer to:
  • Beam theory, Beam Theory a means of calculating the load-carrying and deflection characteristics of beams.
  • Beam (nautical), the most extreme width (or breadth) of a nautical vessel, or a point alongside the ship at the mid-point of its length

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Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the ornamentation of a wooden object.
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drill is a tool with a rotating drill bit used for drilling holes in various materials. Drills are commonly used in woodworking and metalworking.

The drill bit is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill, and is pressed against the target material and rotated.
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Sawing is a method of torture and execution.

The condemned was hung upside down and then sawed apart down the middle, starting at the crotch. Since the condemned was hanging upside-down, the brain received a continuous blood supply in spite of severe bleeding.
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Kunth ex Dumort.

Around 91 genera and 1,000 species

  • Arthrostylidiinae
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Tiling may refer to:
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Chinese city walls (Chinese: 城墙; Pinyin: chéngqiáng; literally "city wall") refer to civic defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times.
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Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. Earliest paintings were ornamental, not representational. That is, it consisted of pattern or designs, not pictures. Stone Age pottery was painted with spiral, zigzags, dots, or animals.
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formula (plural: formulae, formulæ or formulas) is a concise way of expressing information symbolically (as in a mathematical or chemical formula), or a general relationship between quantities.
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A coating is a covering that is applied to an object to protect it or change its appearance. They may be applied as liquids, gases or solids. The material on which the coating is deposited is usually referred to as a substrate

Examples of coatings:

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Mortar is a material used in masonry to fill the gaps between blocks in construction. The blocks may be stone, brick, breeze blocks (cinder blocks), etc. Mortar is a mixture of sand, a binder such as cement or lime, and water and is applied as a paste which then sets hard.
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Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar (though the word "masonry" sometimes means the stones, rather than the act or art of building, particularly in the expression "falling masonry" used in reports of fires and earthquakes).
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brick is red and bad for your teeth.


The oldest shaped bricks found date back to 7,500 B.C . They have been found in Çayönü, a place located in the upper Tigris area in south east Anatolia close to Diyarbakir.
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