accusative case

Grammatical cases
General
Declension - Grammatical case - List of grammatical cases - Morphosyntactic alignment - Oblique / objective case
Grammatical cases
Abessive - Ablative - Absolutive - Accusative - Addirective - Adelative - Adessive - Adverbial - Allative - Antessive - Apudessive - Aversive - Benefactive - Caritive - Causal - Causal-final - Comitative - Dative - Delative - Direct - Distributive - Distributive-temporal - Elative - Ergative - Essive - Essive-formal - Essive-modal - Equative - Evitative - Exessive - Final - Formal - Genitive - Illative - Inelative - Inessive - Instructive - Instrumental - Instrumental-comitative - Intransitive - Lative - Locative - Modal - Multiplicative - Nominative - Partitive - Pegative - Perlative - Possessive - Postelative - Postdirective - Postessive - Postpositional - Prepositional - Privative - Prolative - Prosecutive - Proximative - Separative - Sociative - Subdirective - Subessive - Subelative - Sublative - Superdirective - Superessive - Superlative - Suppressive - Temporal - Terminative - Translative - Vialis - Vocative
Declensions
Czech declension - English declension - German declension - Irish declension - Latin declension - Latvian declension - Lithuanian declension - Slovak declension
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The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions. (Basically, it is a noun that is having something done to it, usually joined (such as in Latin) with the Nominative case.)

The accusative case exists (or existed once) in all the Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Russian), in the Finno-Ugric languages, and in Semitic languages (such as Arabic). It should be noted that Balto-Finnic languages such as Finnish and Estonian have two cases to mark objects, the accusative and the partitive case. In morphosyntactic alignment terms, both perform the accusative function, but the accusative object is telic, while the partitive is not.

Modern English, which almost entirely lacks declension in its nouns, still has an explicitly marked accusative case in a few pronouns as a remnant of Old English, an earlier declined form of the language. "Whom" is the accusative case of "who"; "him" is the accusative case of "he"; and "her" is the accusative case of "she". These words also serve as the dative case pronouns in English and could arguably be classified in the oblique case instead. Most modern English grammarians feel that due to the lack of declension except in a few pronouns, where accusative and dative have been merged, that making case distinctions in English is no longer relevant, and frequently employ the term "objective case" instead (see Declension in English).

Example

In the sentence I see the car, the noun phrase the car is the direct object of the verb "see". In English, which has mostly lost the case system, the definite article and noun — "the car" — remain in the same form regardless of the grammatical role played by the words. One can correctly use "the car" as the subject of a sentence also: "The car is parked here."

In a declined language, the morphology of the article or noun changes in some way according to the grammatical role played by the noun in a given sentence. For example, in German, one possible translation of "the car" is der Wagen. This is the form in nominative case, used for the subject of a sentence. If this article/noun pair is used as the object of a verb, it (usually) changes to the accusative case, which entails an article shift in German — Ich sehe den Wagen. In German, masculine nouns change their definite article from der to den in accusative case.

See also:

The accusative case in Latin

Nouns in the accusative case (Accusativus) can be used
  • as a direct object.
  • to indicate duration of time. E.g. multos annos, "for many years"; ducentos annos, "for 200 years." This is known as the accusative of duration of time.
  • to indicate direction towards which. E.g. domum, "homewards"; Romam, "to Rome" with no preposition needed. This is known as the accusative of place to which, and is equivalent to the lative case found in some other languages.
  • in indirect statements.
  • with case-specific prepositions such as "per" (through), "ad" (to/toward), and "trans" (across).
For the accusative endings, see Latin declensions.

The accusative case in German

The accusative case is used for the direct object in a sentence. The masculine forms for German articles, e.g. 'the', 'a', 'my', etc. change in the accusative case: they always end in -en. The feminine, neuter and plural forms don't change. Some German pronouns also change in the accusative case.

A small number of verbs in German require two direct objects, e. g. "lehren" (to teach) and "kosten" (to cost). The first noun phrase in the accusative case determines the target/direction of the action and the second indicates the object by which the target of the action is affected. For example:
  • Ich lehre dich die deutsche Sprache (lit.: I teach you the German language) where both dich as well as die deutsche Sprache stand in the accusative case. (Colloquially, some people put the first object into the dative case, but this is grammatically wrong.)
The accusative case is also used after a number of German prepositions. These include bis, durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, after which the accusative case is always used, and an, auf, hinter, in, neben, über, unter, vor, zwischen which can take either the accusative or the dative. The latter prepositions take the accusative when motion (towards something) is specified, but take the dative when location (staying within the same area) is specified. These prepositions are also used in conjunction with certain verbs, in which case it is the verb in question which governs whether the accusative or dative should be used.

The accusative case in Russian

In Russian, accusative is used not only to display the direct object of an action, but also to indicate the destination or goal of motion. It is also used with some prepositions. The prepositions в and на can both take accusative in situations where they are indicating the goal of a motion.

Also, in Russian, animate and inanimate nouns may have different forms in accusative case.

The accusative case in Esperanto

Esperanto has only two cases, a nominative, and an accusative, which acts generally as the case of direct objects. Accusative is formed with the addition of -n to the nominative form, and is used expressly for direct objects. All other objective functions, including dative functions and the indication of the direction of motion, are achieved with prepositions and word order.

The accusative in Finnish

According to traditional Finnish grammars, in Finnish the accusative is the case of a total object, while the case of a partial object is the partitive. The accusative is identical either to the nominative or the genitive, except for personal pronouns and the personal interrogative pronoun kuka/ken, which have a special accusative form ending in -t

The major new Finnish grammar, Iso suomen kielioppi, breaks with the traditional classification to limit the accusative case to the special case of the personal pronouns and kuka/ken. The new grammar considers other total objects as being in the nominative or genitive.

See also

External links

declension (or declination) is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. plural), case (subject, object, and so on), or gender.
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This is a list of grammatical cases as they are used by various inflectional languages that have declension.

Place and Time

Note: Most cases used for location and motion can be used for time as well.

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In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the system used to distinguish between the arguments of transitive verbs and those of intransitive verbs. The distinction can be made morphologically (through grammatical case or verbal agreement), syntactically (through word
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An oblique case (Latin: casus generalis) in linguistics is a noun case of synthetic languages that is used generally when a noun is the object of a sentence or a preposition.
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In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated ABESS , from Latin abesse "to be distant"), caritive and privative (abbreviated PRIV ) are names for a grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.
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ablative case (abbreviated ABL ) is a name given to cases in various languages whose common thread is that they mark motion away from something, though the details in each language may differ.
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In ergative-absolutive languages, the absolutive (abbreviated ABS ) is the grammatical case used to mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb. It contrasts with the ergative case, which marks the subject of transitive verbs.
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adessive case (from Latin adesse "to be present") is the fourth of the locative cases with the basic meaning of "on". For example, Estonian laud (table) and laual (on the table), Hungarian asztal and asztalon (on the table).
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The adverbial case is a noun case in the Abkhaz language and Georgian language that has a function similar to the translative and essive cases in Finnic languages. The term is sometimes used to refer to the ablative case in other languages.
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Allative case (abbreviated ALL , from Latin afferre "to bring to") is a type of the locative cases used in several languages. The term allative is generally used for the lative case in the majority of languages which do not make finer distinctions.
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Antessive case[1] is used for marking before something ("before the concert"). The case is found in some Dravidian languages.

References

1. ^ S.

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Apudessive case[1] is used for marking location next to something ("next to the house"). The case is found in Tsez language.

References

1.

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The aversive or evitative case is a grammatical case found in Australian Aboriginal languages that indicates that the marked noun is avoided or feared.

Usage

For example, in Walmajarri:
Yapa-warnti pa-lu tjurtu-karrarla
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The benefactive case (abbreviated BEN ) is a case used where English would use "for", "for the benefit of", or "intended for", e.g. "She opened the door for Tom" or "This book is for Bob".

This meaning is often incorporated in a dative case.
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In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated ABESS , from Latin abesse "to be distant"), caritive and privative (abbreviated PRIV ) are names for a grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.
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The causal or causative case (abbreviated CAUS ) is a grammatical case that indicates that the marked noun is the cause or reason for something.

External links

  • What is causative case?

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This case in Hungarian language combines the Causal case and the Final case: it can express the cause of emotions (e.g. value sb. for sg.) or the goal of actions (e.g. for bread).
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The comitative case is the case that denotes companionship, and is used where English would use "in company with" or "together with". It, and many other cases, are found in the Finnish language, the Hungarian language, and the Estonian language.
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The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. The name is derived from the Latin casus dativus, meaning "the case appropriate to giving"; this was in turn modelled on the Greek
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The delative case (from Latin deferre "to bear or bring away or down") in the Hungarian language can originally express the movement from the surface of something (e.g. "off the table"), but it is used in several other meanings (e.g.
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direct case is the name given to a grammatical case used with all three core relations: the agent of transitive verbs, the patient of transitive verbs, and the agent of intransitive verbs.
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maittain., or "The law is ratified separately in each country". It can be used to distribute the action to frequent points in time, e.g. päivä (day) has the plural distributive päivittäin (each day).
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This case in Hungarian language can express how often something happens (eg. monthly, daily); it can vary with the Distributive case at words of temporal meaning.

This adverb type in Finnish language can express that something happens at a frequent point in time (e.g.
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See Elative for disambiguation.

Elative (from Latin efferre "to bring or carry out") is a locative case with the basic meaning "out of".

In Finnish elative is typically formed by adding "sta/stä", in Estonian by adding "st" to the genitive stem.
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The ergative case is the grammatical case that identifies the subject of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages.

In such languages, the ergative case is typically marked (most salient), while the absolutive case is unmarked.
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The essive or similaris case carries the meaning of a temporary state of being, often equivalent to the English "as a...".

In the Finnish language, this case is marked by adding "-na/-nä" to the stem of the noun.
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In the Hungarian language this case combines the Essive case and the Formal case, and it can express the position, task, state (e.g. "as a tourist"), or the manner (e.g. "like a hunted animal").
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This case in Hungarian language can express the state, capacity, task in which somebody is or which somebody has (Essive case, e.g. "as a reward", "for example"), or the manner in which the action is carried out, or the language which somebody knows (Modal case, e.g.
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Equative is a case with the meaning of comparison, or likening.

In Ossetic it is formed by the ending -ау [aw]:
фæт — arrow, фæтау — like an arrow.

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