amanita

Amanita

Amanita phalloides
& Amanita citrina (left/yellow)
Albin Schmalfuß, 1897
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Fungi
Division:Basidiomycota
Class:Homobasidiomycetes
Subclass:Hymenomycetes
Order:Agaricales
Family:Amanitaceae
Genus:Amanita
Pers.
Species
ca. 600, see List of Amanita species
Synonyms


Aspidella
The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide. This genus is responsible for approximately 95% of the fatalities resulting from mushroom poisoning, with the death cap accounting for about 50% on its own. Because of this, mushrooms of this genus as well as toxic species of other genera are sometimes called toadstools instead of mushrooms but mycologists emphasize that this is a fuzzy distinction at best. The most potent toxin present in these mushrooms is alpha-amanitin.

The listing in this encyclopedia is by no means complete, but represents some of the more well-known members of the genus. The genus also contains many edible mushrooms, but mycologists generally discourage amateur mushroom hunters from selecting these for human consumption. Nonetheless, in some cultures, the larger local edible species of Amanita are mainstays of the markets in the local growing season. Samples of this are Amanita zambiana and other fleshy species in central Africa, A. basii and similar species in Mexico, A. caesarea in Europe, and A. chepangiana in South-East Asia. Other species are used for coloring sauces, such as the red A. jacksonii with a range from eastern Canada to eastern Mexico.

Many species are of unknown edibility, especially in countries such as Australia where many fungi are little-known. Understandably this is not a genus that lends itself to safe experimentation.

Taxonomy

The name is possibly derived from Amanon, a mountain in Cilicia.

A first incarnation from Tentamen dispositionis methodicae Fungorum 65. 1797 is cited as devalidated: "Introduced to cover three groups already previously distinguished by Persoon (in [...] Tent. 18. 1797) under Agaricus L., but at that time not named. It is worth stressing that the species now known as Amanita caesarea was not mentioned."

With Agaricus L. in use, Amanita was a nomen nudum per modern standard, so Persoon gave it a new life unrelated to its previous incarnations, and that is finally published after a starting date by Hooker (the citation is Pers. per Hook., 1821). He reuses Withering's 1801 definition (A botanical arrangement of British plants, 4th ed.). "The name Amnita has been considered validly published on different occasions, depending on various considerations." Proposed types include (given as Amanita. Sometimes they were selected as Agarici):
*A. livida Pers. (By Earle, in 1909). Had been excluded in Vaginata or Amanitopsis and could not be chosen.
*A. muscaria Pers. (By Clemens & Shear, 1931) for the genus (1801) from Synopsis fungorum, was generally transferred to the one from Hooker's Flora of Scotland, which is currently considered the valid publication of Amanita (or was in the 50s).
*A. phalloides (by Singer, 1936) for the 1801 genus.
*A.bulbosa (by Singer & Smith, 1946) for Gray's republication. This is incorrect as Gray's A. bulbosa is a synonym of A. citrina. Some authors consider Gray to be the first valid republisher.
*A. caesarea (by Gilbert, 1940). Troublesome because not known personally to Persoon or Fries.
Donk concludes the earliest valid type is A. muscaria, the species in Hooker, adding that he'd personally favor A. citrina.

The name has been republished three times in 1821: in Hooker, Roques and Gray (in that order). Roques maintained Persoon's circumscription, including Amanitopsis and Volvaria. Gray excluded Amanitopsis and Volvariella into Vaginata. Right after, Fries reset the name by reducing the genus to a tribe of Agaricus, minus pink-spored Volvariella. This tribe became a subgenus, than genus via various authors, Quélet, although not the first, often being attributed the change. Sometimes it was used in a Persoonian sense (whether that is a correct use according to ICBN is not clear).

Homonyms of Amanita Pers. are Amanita adans. (1763, devalidated) and Amanita (Dill) Rafin. (1830)

See also

References

  • Donk, M.A. (1962). "The generic names proposed for Agaricaceae". Beiheifte zur Nova Hedwigia 5: 1-320. ISSN 0078-2238. 

External links

Further reading

  • Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America: A Field-to-kitchen Guide (1992) ISBN 0-292-72080-0
A. phalloides

Binomial name
Amanita phalloides
(Vaill. ex Fr.) Link

Amanita phalloides, commonly known as the death cap
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A. citrina

Binomial name
Amanita citrina
(Schaeff.) Pers., 1797

The false death cap, Amanita citrina (previously also known as Amanita mappa
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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Eukarya
Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
(unranked) Opisthokonta

Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subkingdom/Phyla

Chytridiomycota
Blastocladiomycota

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Basidiomycota
R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subphyla/Classes

Pucciniomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina
Agaricomycotina
Incertae sedis (no phylum)
Wallemiomycetes
Entorrhizomycetes




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Agaricomycetes includes the so-called "true" mushrooms and a common name for this group of some 16,000 described species is the mushroom-forming fungi (53% of the described basidiomycetes).
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Hymenomycetes are a class of fungi within the phylum basidiomycota. It contains the orders Agaricales, Boletales, and Russulales.

Formerly a taxonomic group of basidiomycetes, now understood as polyphyletic assemblage of basidiomycetes, the term refers to fungi with fruit
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Agaricales, also known as gilled mushrooms (for their distinctive gills), or euagarics, contains some of the most familiar types of mushrooms. The order has about 4,000 identified species, or one quarter of all known homobasidiomycetes.
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Amanitaceae

Genera
Amanita
Limacella
Torrendia

Amanitaceae is a family of fungi or mushrooms. The family, also called commonly, the Amanita Family, is in order Agaricales, gilled mushrooms.
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Christian Hendrik Persoon (February 1, 1761 - November 16, 1836) was a mycologist who made additions to Linnaeus' mushroom taxonomy.

Persoon was born in South Africa, of Dutch and German descent.
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The following is a list of some notable species of the agaric genus Amanita. This genus contains over 500 named species and varieties, so the list is far from exhaustive.
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In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. Usage and terminology are different for zoology and botany.

Zoology

In zoological nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names that pertain to the same taxon, for example
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genus (plural: genera) is part of the Latinized name for an organism. It is a name which reflects the classification of the organism by grouping it with other closely similar organisms.
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species is one of the basic units of biological classification. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
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agaric is a type of fungal fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus that is clearly differentiated from the stipe, with lamellae (gills) on the underside of the pileus. "Agaric" can also refer to a basidiomycete species characterized by an agaric-type fruiting body.
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Toxicity is the degree to which something is able to produce illness or damage to an exposed organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as a human or a bacterium or a plant, or to a substructure, such as a cell (cytotoxicity) or an organ (organotoxicity
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MeSH D009145 Mushroom poisoning refers to symptoms that can vary from slight gastrointestinal discomfort to death resulting from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom. The toxins present are metabolic byproducts produced by the fungus.
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A. phalloides

Binomial name
Amanita phalloides
(Vaill. ex Fr.) Link

Amanita phalloides, commonly known as the death cap
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Alpha-amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide of eight amino acids. It is possibly the most deadly of all the amatoxins, toxins found in several members of the Amanita genus of mushrooms, one being the Death cap (Amanita phalloides
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The following is a list of some notable species of the agaric genus Amanita. This genus contains over 500 named species and varieties, so the list is far from exhaustive.
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Africa is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. At about 30,221,532 km² (11,668,545 sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area, and 20.4% of the total land area.
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Anthem
Himno Nacional Mexicano


Capital
(and largest city) Mexico City

Official languages Spanish (
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Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Physically and geologically, Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea,
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, and north of Australia.
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Protection is not an endorsement of the current [ version] ([ protection log]).
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Anthem
Himno Nacional Mexicano


Capital
(and largest city) Mexico City

Official languages Spanish (
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Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
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Cilicia (Greek: Κιλικία; Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was a commonly used name of the south coastal region of the Anatolian penninsula, now known as Çukurova, and a political entity in Roman times.
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Christian Hendrik Persoon (February 1, 1761 - November 16, 1836) was a mycologist who made additions to Linnaeus' mushroom taxonomy.

Persoon was born in South Africa, of Dutch and German descent.
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Agaricus

Species
See article

Agaricus is a large and important genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide[1][2].
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