assassination

AssassiNation
Enlarge picture
AssassiNation cover
Studio album by Krisiun
Released 2006
Genre Death metal
Length 49:03
Label Century Media
Krisiun chronology
Bloodshed
(2004)
AssassiNation
2006


AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. It is dedicated in memory of Doc and Dimebag Darrell.

Track listing

  1. "Bloodcraft" – 5:49
  2. "Natural Genocide" – 4:29
  3. "Vicious Wrath" – 3:54
  4. "Refusal" – 4:49
  5. "H.O.G. (House of God)" – 3:21
  6. "Father's Perversion" – 4:49
  7. "Suicidal Savagery" – 4:23
  8. "Doomed" – 1:00
  9. "United in Deception" – 4:52
  10. "Decimated" – 4:08
  11. "Summon" – 0:49
  12. "Sweet Revenge" – 6:36 (Motörhead Cover)

Credits




Homicide
Murder
Assassination
Child murder
Consensual homicide
Contract killing
Felony murder
Honor killing
Human sacrifice
Lust murder
Lynching
Mass murder
Murder-suicide
Negligent homicide
Proxy murder
Ritual murder
Serial killer
Spree killer
Torture murder
Vehicular homicide
Manslaughter
In English law
Non-criminal homicide
Justifiable homicide
Capital punishment
Other types of homicide
Democide
Familicide
Femicide
Feticide
Filicide
Fratricide
Gendercide
Genocide
Infanticide
Mariticide
Matricide
Parricide
Patricide
Prolicide
Sororicide
Suicide
Regicide
Tyrannicide
Uxoricide
Vivicide
This box:     [ edit]


Assassination is the murder of an individual; usually a political or famous figure.[1] An added distinction between assassination and other forms of killing is that an assassin usually has an ideological or political motivation, though many assassins (especially those who are not part of an organised movement) also show elements of insanity. Other motivations may be money (as in the case of a contract killing), revenge, or as a military operation.

The euphemism targeted killing (also called extrajudicial execution) is also sometimes used for sanctioned assassinations of opponents, especially where undertaken by governments.[2] 'Assassination' itself, along with terms such as 'terrorist' and 'freedom fighter', may in this context be considered a loaded term, as it implies an act where the proponents of such killings may consider them justified or even necessary.[2]

Etymology

Main article: Hashshashin
The term 'Assassin' is generally assumed to be derived from its connections to the Hashshashin, a militant religious sect of Ismaili Muslims, thought to be active in the Middle East in the 8th to 14th centuries. This mystic secret society killed members of the Abbasid and Seljuq elite for political or religious reasons.[3]

Stories claim that these early assassins were drugged during their murders, often with materials such as hashish and opium. The name assassin is derived from either hasishin for the supposed influence of the drugs, and disregard for their own lives in the process, or hassansin for their leader, Hassan-i-Sabah.

Today it is known that hashishinnya was an offensive term used to depict this cult by its Muslim and Mongolian detractors; the extreme zeal and cold preparation to murder makes it unlikely they ever used drugs.

The earliest known use of the derived term "Assassination" is found in William Shakespeare's theatrical play Macbeth, first published in the year 1605.[4][5]

Definition problem

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The assassination of Alexander I of Yugoslavia was one of the first to be caught on film.
The formal definition of the term 'Assassination' varies between sources. For example, according to The American Heritage Dictionary, to assassinate is:

"...to murder (a prominent person) by surprise attack, as for political reasons."[6]


However, the Oxford English Dictionary defines assassination as:

''"The action of assassinating; the taking the life of any one by treacherous violence, esp. by a hired emissary, or one who has taken upon him to execute the deed."[7]


There is also the problem regarding motivation: should the term include killings where the primary motivation is to attract attention to a cause, took place for purely personal reasons with the target itself being of secondary importance, or should the use of this term be restricted to murders where the victim is a political leader or public figure hostile to the agenda of the killer? One can take various positions on this definitional problem (note that this consideration is of necessity based upon language, not law), stating that an assassination is:
  • the killing of someone by treacherous violence (no matter the motivation or target)
  • the killing of someone in the public view (i.e. a politician or celebrity, no matter the motivation)
  • the killing of someone for political, moral, or ideological reasons (usually requiring a specific, connected target)
For the purposes of this article, the third definition predominates, even though it is likely that the second is most popular, and the first would often be found in colloquial use.

Another less known definition of an assassin, is 'the murderer of someone who is know, either by their celebrity or infamy, by the communications expert Lee McNamara'. This has been been widely disputed as a definition and is yet to be supported by any internationally recognised institution.[2]

Use in history

Ancient history

Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, dating back at least as far as recorded history. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, and Julius Caesar can be noted as famous examples. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Shia Imams. The practice was also well-known in ancient China like Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin Shi Huang. The ancient Indian military advisor Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra.

In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare, but with the Renaissance, tyrannicide - or assassination for personal or political reasons - became more common again. Rulers like Henry III and Henry IV of France as well as William the Silent of the Netherlands fell to it.

Enlarge picture
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, artists depiction from 1865. Assassin John Wilkes Booth on the right.

Modern history

As the world moved into the present day and the stakes in political clashes of will continued to grow to a global scale, the number of assassinations concurrently multiplied. In Russia alone, four emperors were assassinated within less than 200 years - Ivan VI, Peter III, Paul I, and Alexander II .

In the USA, Presidents Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy died at the hands of assassins, while many other presidents survived attempts on their life. Most of these assassinations however turned out to have no more than nebulous political backgrounds, adding a new threat - the mentally deranged assassin.

In Europe the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serb nationalist insurgents finally triggered World War I after a period of building conflicts, while World War II saw the first known use of specifically trained assassination operatives since the original Assassins. Reinhard Heydrich was killed by British-backed killers, and knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the US to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto while he was en-route in an airplane. Adolf Hitler meanwhile was almost killed by his own officers, and survived numerous attempts by other individuals and organizations.

Cold War and beyond

During the Cold War, there was a dramatic increase in the number of political assassinations, likely because of the ideological polarization of most of the First and Second worlds, whose adherents were often more than willing to both justify and finance such killings.

Nawabzadah Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan was assassinated by Saad Akbar a lone assassin in 1951. Conspiracy theorists believe his conflict with certain members of the Pakistan military (Rawalpindi conspiracy) or suppression of Communists and antagonism towards the Soviet Union, were potential reasons for his assassination.

During the Kennedy era, Cuban President Fidel Castro narrowly escaped death on several occasions at the hands of the CIA. At the same time, the KGB made creative use of assassination to deal with high-profile defectors and Israel's Mossad used them to eliminate Palestinian guerrillas and Palestinian political leaders.

Most major powers were not long in repudiating Cold War assassination tactics, though many allege that this was merely a smoke screen for political benefit and that covert and illegal training of assassins continues today, with Russia, Israel and other nations accused of still regularly engaging in such operations. In 1986, U.S. President Ronald Reagan ordered the Operation El Dorado Canyon air raid on Libya where one of the primary targets was the home residence of Libyan ruler Muammar Gaddafi. Gaddafi escaped unharmed, however his adopted daughter Hanna was one of the civilian casualties.

On August 17, 1988 President of Pakistan Gen. M. Zia ul Haq died along with his staff and the American Ambassador to Pakistan when his C- 130 transport plane exploded in mid-air because of an on flight bomb. The CIA, KGB and Indian secret service RAW all have been implicated by various conspiracy theorists.

During the 1991 Gulf War, the United States also struck many of Iraq’s most important command bunkers with bunker-busting bombs in hopes of killing Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.

Various dictators around the world, such as Saddam Hussein, have also used assassination to remove individual opponents, or to terrorize troublesome population groups. In return, in post-Saddam Iraq, the Shiite-dominated government has used death squads to perform countless extrajudicial executions of Sunni Iraqis, with some alleging that the death squads were trained by the U.S.[8][9][10]

Since the rise of al-Qaeda and similar organizations, who themselves often engage in assassination tactics, both the US administrations of Clinton and Bush have backed assassinations, mostly directed against terrorist leaders like Osama bin Laden, but also against elected political leaders and opponents like Mullah Omar. Most of these attempts were undertaken with remote-controlled missiles and similar tactics, often using remote surveillance for the decision where and when to strike as well. One of the most well-known examples of recent assassinations carried out by the United States was the killing of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and Sheik Abd-Al-Rahman, both killed as a result of two guided bombs on a safe house outside of Baghdad.

See also:


Outside of the larger-scale conflicts of Cold War and the War on Terrorism, assassinations stemming from internal or historical conflicts did not cease either. For example, in India, two Prime ministers, Indira Gandhi and her son Rajiv Gandhi, were both assassinated for political reasons in the 1980s.

Further reasons

As military doctrine

Assassination for military purposes has long been espoused - Sun Tzu, writing around the time 500 B.C.E. argued in favor of using assassination in his book The Art of War. Nearly 2000 years later Machiavelli also argued assassination could be useful in his book The Prince. In medieval times, an army and even a nation might be based upon and around a particularly strong, canny or charismatic leader, whose loss could paralyze the ability of both to make war. However, in modern warfare a soldier's mindset is generally considered to surround ideals far more than specific leaders, while command structures are more flexible in replacing officer losses. While the death of a popular or successful leader often has a detrimental effect on morale, the organisational system and the belief in a specific cause is usually strong enough to enable continued warfare.

There is also the risk that the target could be replaced by an even more competent leader or that such a killing (or a failed attempt) will "martyr" a leader and support his cause (by showing the moral ruthlessness of the assassins). Faced with particularly brilliant leaders, this possibility has in various instances been risked, such as in the attempts to kill the Athenian Alcibiades during the Peloponnesian War. There are a number of additional examples from World War II, the last major total war, which show how assassination was used as a military tool at both tactical and strategic levels:
  • The American interception of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto airplane during World War II, after his travel route had been decrypted.
  • The American perception that Skorzeny's commandos were planning to assassinate Eisenhower during the Battle of the Bulge played havoc with Eisenhower's personal plans for some time, though it did not affect the battle itself. Skorzeny later denied in an interview with the New York Times that he had ever intended to assassinate Eisenhower during Operation Greif and he said that he could prove it.[11]
  • There was a planned British commando raid to capture or kill the German General Erwin Rommel (also known as "The Desert Fox").[11]
Use of assassination has continued in more recent conflicts:
  • During the Vietnam War, partly in response to Viet Cong assassinations of government leaders, the USA engaged in the Phoenix Program to assassinate Viet Cong leaders and symphatizers, and killed between 6,000 and 41,000 individuals, with official 'targets' of 1,800 per month.[12]
  • Israel uses targeted killings of Palestinian political leaders to paralyze the activities of Hamas and other militant groups.
  • From 1991 till 2006, Russia targeted the top commanders of the separatist groups they were fighting in Chechenya, killing several of them (including Aslan Maskhadov and Shamil Basayev)

As tool of insurgents

Insurgent groups have often employed assassination as a tool to further their causes. Assassinations provide several functions for such groups, namely the removal of specific enemies and as propaganda tools to focus the attention of media and politics on their cause.

The Irish Republican Army guerrillas of 1919-1921 assassinated many RIC Police Intelligence officers during the Irish War of Independence. Michael Collins set up a special unit - the Squad - for this purpose, which had the effect of intimidating many policemen into resigning from the force. The Squad's activities peaked with the assassination of 14 British agents in Dublin on Bloody Sunday in 1920.

This tactic was used again by the Provisional IRA during the Troubles in Northern Ireland (1969-present). Assassination of RUC officers and politicians was one of a number of methods used in the Provisional IRA campaign 1969-1997. The IRA also attempted to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher by bombing the Conservative Party Conference in a Brighton hotel. Loyalist paramilitaries retaliated by killing Catholics at random and assassinating Irish nationalist politicians.

Basque separatists ETA in Spain have assassinated many security and political figures since the late 1960s, notably Luis Carrero Blanco in 1973. Since the early 1990s, they have also targeted academics, journalists and local politicians who publicly disagreed with them, meaning that many needed armed police bodyguards.

The Red Brigades in Italy carried out assassinations of political figures, as to a lesser extent, did the Red Army Faction in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s.

Middle Eastern groups, such as the PLO and Hezbollah, have all engaged in assassinations, though the higher intensity of armed conflict in the region compared to western Europe means that many of their actions are either better characterized as guerrilla operations or as random attacks on civilians - especially the technique of suicide bombs.

In the Vietnam War, assassinations were routinely carried out by communist insurgents against government officials and private individuals deemed to offend or rival the revolutionary movement. Such attacks, along with widespread military activity by insurgent bands, almost brought the Diem regime to collapse, prior to the US intervention.[13]

For money or gain

Individually, too, people have often found reasons to arrange the deaths of others through paid intermediaries. One who kills with no political motive or group loyalty who kills only for money is known as a Hitman or Contract Killer. Note that by the definition accepted above, while such a killer is not, strictly speaking, an assassin, if the killing is ordered and financed towards a political end, then that killing must rightly be termed an assassination, and the hitman an assassin by extension.

Entire organizations have sometimes specialized in assassination as one of their services, to be gained for the right price. Besides the original hashshashin, the ninja clans of Japan were rumored to perform assassinations - though it can be pointed out that most of what was ever known about the ninja was rumor and hearsay.

In the United States, Murder, Inc., an organization partnered to the Mafia, was formed for the sole purpose of performing assassinations for organized crime. In Russia, the vory (thieves), their version of the Mafia, are often known to provide assassinations for the right price, as well as engaging in it themselves for their own purposes. A professional hitman is called "cleaner" in Russia; he is used to clean away the target. The Finnish as well as the Swedish underworld uses the word "torpedo" for a contract killer.

Psychology

A major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century came to the conclusion that most prospective assassins spend copious amounts of time planning and preparing for their attempts. Assassinations are thus rarely a case of 'impulsive' action.[13]

However, about 25% of the actual attackers were found to be delusional, a figure that rose to 60% with 'near-lethal approachers' (people apprehended before reaching their target). This incidentally shows that while mental instability plays a role in many modern-age assassinations, the more delusional attackers are less likely to succeed in their attempt. The report also found that around 2/3rds of the attackers had previously been arrested for (not necessarily related) offenses, that around 44% had a history of serious depression, and that 39% had a history of substance abuse.[13]

Techniques

Ancient methods

It seems likely that the first assassinations would have been direct and simple: stabbing, strangling or bludgeoning. Substantial planning or coordination would rarely have been involved, as tribal groups were too small, and the connection to the leaders too close. As civilization took root, however, leaders began to have greater importance, and become more detached from the groups they ruled. This would have brought planning, subterfuge and weapons into successful assassination plans.

The key technique was likely infiltration, with the actual assassination via stabbing, smothering or strangulation. Poisons also started to be used in many forms. Death cap mushrooms and similar plants became a traditional choice of assassins especially if they could not be perceived as poisonous by taste, and the symptoms of the poisoning did not show until after some time.

Modern methods

With the advent of effective ranged weaponry, and later firearms, the position of an assassination target was more precarious. Bodyguards were no longer enough to hold back determined killers, who no longer needed to directly engage or even subvert the guard to kill the leader in question. Additionally the engagement of targets at greater distance dramatically increased the chances for survival of an assassin. It is considered that William the Silent of the Netherlands was the first leader assassinated by fireams.

Gunpowder and other explosives also allowed the use of bombs or even greater concentrations of explosives for deeds requiring a larger touch; for an example, the Gunpowder Plot could have 'assassinated' almost a thousand people.

Explosives, especially the car bomb, become far more common in modern history, with grenades and remote-triggered landmines also used, especially in the Middle East and Balkans (the initial attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand's life was with a grenade). With heavy weapons, the rocket propelled grenade (RPG) has became a useful tool given the popularity of armored cars (discussed below), while Israeli forces have pioneered the use of aircraft-mounted missiles for assassination,[14] as well as the innovative use of explosive devices.

A sniper with a precision rifle is often used in fictional assassinations. However, there are certain difficulties associated with long-range shooting, including finding a hidden shooting position with a clear line-of-sight, detailed advance knowledge of the intended victim's travel plans, the ability to identify the target at long range, and the ability to score a first-round lethal hit at long range, usually measured in hundreds of meters. A dedicated sniper rifle is also expensive and relatively rare, often costing thousands of dollars because of the high level of precision machining and hand-finishing required to achieve extreme accuracy.[15]

However, many hunting rifles are accurate enough in the hands of an experienced marksman to fatally hit a target at up to 300 meters (330 yards) or more, such as the Savage Arms Model 111 rifle that was recently tested as having a calculated effective range on a human torso of over 500 yards (450 m).[16] Modern hunting cartridges also have a flat enough trajectory to not require the shooter to compensate for bullet drop for targets up to about 250 meters (275 yards) and are powerful enough to penetrate most types of body armor with relative ease. The difficulty for an assassin lies thus more in gaining the required marksman skills, than in procuring a suitable weapon.

Despite their comparative disadvantages, easy-to-acquire and hard-to-trace handguns are much more commonly used. Of 74 principal incidents evaluated in a major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century, 51% were undertaken by a handgun, 30% with a rifle or shotgun, while 15% of the attempts used knives and 8% explosives (usage of multiple weapons/methods was reported in 16% of all cases).[13]

A 2006 case in the UK concerned the assassination of Alexander Litvinenko who was given a lethal dose of radioactive polonium-210, possibly passed to him in aerosol form sprayed directly onto his food. Litvinenko, a former KGB agent, had been granted asylum in the UK in 2000 after citing persecution in Russia. Shortly before his death he issued a statement accusing Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, of involvement in his assassination. President Putin denies he had any part in Litvinenko's death.[17]

Counter-measures

Early forms

One of the earliest forms of defense against assassins is without doubt the bodyguard. He acts as a shield for the potential target, keeps lookout for potential attackers (sometimes in advance, for example on a planned tour), and is literally supposed to put himself 'in harm's way' - both by his simple presence, forming a barrier in front of the target[13][19] and by shielding the target during any attack. He is also, if possible, to neutralize an attacker as fast as possible, and thus often carries weapons (where legal or possible).

This bodyguard function was often executed by the leader's most loyal warriors, and was extremely effective throughout most of early human history, leading to attempts via subterfuge, such as poison (which was answered by the food taster).

Notable examples of bodyguards would include the Roman Praetorian Guard or the Ottoman janissaries - although, in both cases, it should be noted that the protectors often became assassins themselves, exploiting their power to make the head of state a virtual hostage at their whim or eliminating threatening leaders altogether. The fidelity of individual bodyguards is an important question as well, especially for leaders who oversee states with strong ethnic or religious divisions. Failure to realize such divided loyalties leads to assassinations such as that of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards in 1984.

Modern strategies

With the advent of gunpowder, ranged assassination (via bombs or firearms) became possible. One of the first reactions was to simply increase the guard, creating what at times might seem a small army trailing every leader; another was to begin clearing large areas whenever a leader was present, to the point where entire sections of a city might be shut down.

As the 20th century dawned, the prevalence of assassins and their capabilities skyrocketed, and so did measures to protect against them. For the first time, armored cars or armored limousines were put into service for safer transport, with modern versions rendering them virtually invulnerable to small arms fire and smaller bombs and mines.[20] Bulletproof vests also began to be used, though they were of limited utility, restricting movement and leaving the head unprotected - as such they tended to be worn only during high-profile public events if at all.

Access to famous persons, too, became more and more restrictive;[21] potential visitors would be forced through numerous different checks before being granted access to the official in question, and as communication became better and information technology more prevalent, it has become next-to-impossible for a would-be killer to get close enough to the personage at work or in private life to effect an attempt on his or her life, especially given the common use of metal and bomb detectors.

Most modern assassinations have been committed either during a public performance or during transport, both because of weaker security and security lapses, such as with US President John F. Kennedy or as part of coups d'état where security is either overwhelmed or completely removed, such as with Patrice Lumumba and likely Salvador Allende.[22]

The methods used for protection by famous people have sometimes evoked negative reactions by the public, with some resenting the separation from their officials or major figures. One example might be traveling in a car protected by a bubble of clear bulletproof glass, such as the Popemobile of Pope John Paul II (built following an extremist's attempt at his life). Politicians themselves often resent this need for separation - which has at times caused tragedy when they sent their bodyguards from their side for personal or publicity reasons, as U.S. President William McKinley did during the public reception at which he was assassinated.[21]

Other potential targets go into seclusion, and are rarely heard from or seen in public, such as writer Salman Rushdie. A related form of protection is the use of body doubles, a person built similar to the person he is expected to impersonate. These persons are then made up, as well as in some cases altered to look like the target, with the body double then taking the place of the person in high risk situations. Adolf Hitler and Saddam Hussein are known to have used body doubles.[23] According to Joe R. Reeder, a former under secretary for the U.S. Army from 1993-1997 writing in Fox News, Fidel Castro had also used body doubles, though no details were specified.[23]

In the final analysis, counter-measures can never be fully effective. If the assassin is committed beyond reason (i.e. insane) or without concern for his own for self-preservation (suicide attacker), then the task of protecting a person will be made much more difficult.

Notable assassinations and attempts

See also:


The following is a list of some of the most notable assassinations and assassination attempts. It is not intended to be exhaustive.

Assassin Year (AD format) Target Target Comments
Jing Ke210 BCChinese Emperor Qin Shi HuangSurvivedOne of the earliest documented attempts.
Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, and others44 BCRoman Dictator Julius CaesarKilled
Hassan-i-Sabah1100Various targets (assassinated by proxy)N.A.Founder of the Hashshashin sect.
Balthasar Gérard1584Dutch Stadtholder William the SilentKilledThe first assassination carried out with a firearm.
Guy Fawkes1605King James I of England, Parliament of EnglandSurvivedSee the Gunpowder Plot.
François Ravaillac1610King Henri IV of FranceKilledReligious murder.
Charlotte Corday1791French revolutionary Jean-Paul MaratKilledLater often seen as a patriotic act.
John Wilkes Booth1865US President Abraham LincolnKilled
Charles J. Guiteau1881US President James GarfieldKilledDied 80 days following the shooting.
Ignacy Hryniewiecki1881Tsar Alexander II of RussiaKilledAssassination plot concluded with bombs.
Frederick Russell Burnham1896Mlimo, the Ndebele religious leaderKilledEffectively ended the Second Matabele War.[24]
Leon Czolgosz1901US President William McKinleyKilled
Alexandros Schinas1913King George I of GreeceKilledPossible conspiracy.
Gavrilo Princip1914Austrian Archduke Franz FerdinandKilledConsidered the start of World War I.
Raoul Villain1914French socialist leader Jean JaurèsKilledThe assassin was tried and acquitted in 1919.
Fritz Joubert Duquesne1916Lord Kitchener, British Field Marshal and Secretary of State for WarKilledKilled on the HMS Hampshire by an act of sabotage.
Vlado Chernozemski1934Alexander I of YugoslaviaKilledKilled in Marseille during a state visit.
Claus von Stauffenberg1944German dictator Adolf HitlerSurvivedSee the July 20 plot.
Nathuram Godse1948Political and Spiritual Leader Mahatma GandhiKilled
Nguyen Van Cu and Pham Phu Quoc1962President of the Republic of Vietnam Ngo Dinh DiemSurvivedSee 1962 South Vietnamese Presidential Palace bombing
Lee Harvey Oswald1963US President John F. KennedyKilledOfficial reports have concluded that Oswald acted alone, however significant doubts remain for many.
Jack Ruby1963Lee Harvey OswaldKilled
James Earl Ray /
Loyd Jowers
1968Political activist Martin Luther KingKilledRay was convicted on a guilty plea but later recanted, while a 1999 civil trial convicted Jowers and 'unknown others', while also noting that 'governmental agencies were parties' to the plot.[25]
Sirhan Sirhan1968US Senator Robert F. KennedyKilled
Prince Faisal bin Musa'id1975Saudi King FaisalKilled
Dan White1978San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey MilkKilledKilled over not reappointing Dan White supervisor
Kim Jae-kyu1979South-Korean President Park Chung-heeKilledSee Park Chung Hee assassination
Mark David Chapman1980John LennonKilledAn act to become famous.
John Hinckley, Jr.1981Ronald ReaganSurvivedTo impress actress Jodie Foster.
Khalid Islambouli1981Egyptian President Anwar Al SadatKilledRare attack carried out by a group.
Mehmet Ali Ağca1981Catholic Pope John Paul IISurvived
Satwant Singh and Beant Singh1984Indian Prime Minister Indira GandhiKilledAssassinated by personal bodyguards.
Unknown assassin1986Swedish Prime Minister Olof PalmeKilledKilled by a handgun on his way home from a cinema on a street in central Stockholm.
Thenmuli Rajaratnam1991Former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv GandhiKilledKilled in an explosion triggered by a LTTE suicide bomber.
Janusz Walus1993South African Communist Party leader Chris HaniKilledAnti-Communist killing
Yigal Amir1995Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak RabinKilledAttack carried out by Israeli opposed to Oslo Accords.
Maxime Brunerie2002French President Jacques ChiracSurvivedAttempted to shoot the President during the Bastille Day Military Parade.

See also

Related lists

References

1. ^ Assassin (from Wordnet, Princeton University)
2. ^ Commentary: Targeted killing... - Cohen, Ariel, Washington Post, Thursday 25 March 2004
3. ^ Secret Societies Handbook, Michael Bradley, Cassell Illustrated, 2005. ISBN 978-1844034161
4. ^ "Assassination". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, second edition, 1989
5. ^ Inventing English: A Portable History of the Language, Seth Lerer, 2007
6. ^ Assassination (from the American Heritage Dictionary)
7. ^ Cited from - "Assassination". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, second edition, 1989.
8. ^ "The Salvador Option" - The Pentagon may put Special-Forces-led assassination or kidnapping teams in Iraq - Newsweek, Friday 14 January 2005
9. ^ CBS: Death Squads In Iraqi Hospitals - CBS Evening News, Wednesday 4 October 2006
10. ^ Is the U.S. Training Iraqi Death Squads to Fight the Insurgency? - Democracy Now, Thursday, December 1st, 2005
11. ^ Commando Extraordinary - Foley, Charles; Legion for the Survival of Freedom, 1992, page 155
12. ^ CIA and Operation Phoenix in Vietnam - McGehee, Ralph; from a usenet discussion citing numerous references, 19 February 1996
13. ^ Viet Cong - Pike, Douglas, The MIT Press; New Ed edition, Wednesday 16 December 1970
14. ^ Hamas leader killed in Israeli airstrike - CNN, Saturday 17 April 2004
15. ^ Iraqi insurgents using Austrian rifles from Iran - The Daily Telegraph, Tuesday 13 February 2007
16. ^ Packages: Remington, Savage Square Off in Value Showdown - Gun Tests, February 2006, Vol. XVIII No. 2, pp. 11-15
17. ^ Putin 'Deplores' Spy Death - Sky News Friday 24 November 2006
18. ^ Assassination in the United States: An Operational Study - Fein, Robert A. & Vossekuil, Brian, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Volume 44, Number 2, March 1999
19. ^ Lincoln - Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
20. ^ How to choose the appropriate bulletproof cars (from Alpha-armouring.com website, includes examples of protection levels available)
21. ^ The Need For Protection Further Demonstrated - Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
22. ^ Salvador Allende Gossens (biography from the Encarta website)
23. ^ It's Bin Laden ... or Is It? - Fox News, Thursday 20 December 2001
24. ^ (June 25, 1896) "Killed the Matabele God: Burnham, the American scout, may end uprising". New York Times. ISSN 0093-1179. 
25. ^ Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial (from The King Center website)

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Century Media Records (CMR) is an independent rock record label with offices in the United States, Brazil, Germany, Australia, France, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
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Krisiun is a Technical Brutal Death metal band from Brazil, formed in 1990 in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. The band is heavily influenced by the debut albums of Sodom, Kreator, Morbid Angel and Slayer.
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Bloodshed
(2004) AssassiNation
(2006)

Bloodshed is an EP by Krisiun. It includes the Unmerciful Order EP and a number of new tracks. Despite its length, it is marketed as an EP.
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Krisiun is a Technical Brutal Death metal band from Brazil, formed in 1990 in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. The band is heavily influenced by the debut albums of Sodom, Kreator, Morbid Angel and Slayer.
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Century Media Records (CMR) is an independent rock record label with offices in the United States, Brazil, Germany, Australia, France, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
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Krzysztof Raczkowski (October 29, 1970 – August 20, 2005), also known as Docent or Doc, was a Polish drummer, member of Death metal bands Vader (1988 - March 2005), Dies Irae.
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Dimebag Darrell (born Darrell Lance Abbott on August 20, 1966, Arlington, Texas – December 8, 2004, Columbus, Ohio), also known as Diamond Darrell until mid 1992, was the lead guitarist for the heavy metal bands Pantera, Damageplan and Rebel Meets Rebel.
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Motörhead are a Grammy Award-winning British heavy metal band formed in 1975 by bassist, singer and songwriter Lemmy (real name Ian Kilmister), who has remained the sole constant member.
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Max Kolesne is a death metal drummer and plays in the Brazilian death metal band Krisiun. His drumming style is noted to be pure death metal in which he incorporates blast beats followed by the regular high speed doublebass patterns.
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Andy Classen is a German musician, sound engineer and record producer.

He began his career in 1980 as a guitarist for the German thrash metal band Holy Moses, fronted by his later wife Sabina Classen.
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Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being.[1] It can also describe a person who has committed such an act, though this use is rare in modern English.
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Crimes



Classes of crime
Infraction  · Misdemeanor  · Felony
Summary  · Indictable  · Hybrid


Against the person
Assault  · Battery
Extortion  · Harassment
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murder of children is considered a particularly abhorrent crime in most societies; they are perceived within their communities and the state at large as being vulnerable, and therefore especially susceptible to abduction and murder.
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Consensual homicide, also called assisted suicide, refers to a killing in which the victim wants to die.

Euthanasia

Main article: Euthanasia

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Homicide
Murder

Assassination
Child murder
Consensual homicide
Contract killing
Felony murder
Honor killing
Human sacrifice
Lust murder
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felony murder rule is a legal doctrine current in some common law countries that broadens the crime of murder in two ways. First, when a victim dies accidentally or without specific intent in the course of an applicable felony, it increases what might have been manslaughter (or
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honor killing is the murder of a victim by, or at the behest of, close family members with the aim of undoing the loss, or perceived loss, of wider family status owing to the actions or status of the victim.
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Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. It was practiced in many ancient cultures.
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lust murder is a homicide in which the offender searches for erotic satisfaction by taking away the victim's life. Commonly this type of crime is manifested either by murder during sexual intercourse or by mutilating the sexual organs or areas of the victim's body.
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Lynching is the practice of inflicting summary punishment upon an offender, by a self-constituted court armed with no legal authority; it is now limited to the summary execution of one charged with some flagrant offence.
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Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time or over a relatively short period of time. Mass murder may be committed by individuals or organizations.
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murder-suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or at the same time as, killing himself.

The combination of murder and suicide can take various forms, including:

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Negligent homicide is a charge brought against persons, who by inaction, allow others under their care to die. This offense mostly concerns itself with the death of small infants or children, the handicapped, or the elderly.
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proxy murder is a murder in which the murderer does so at the behest of another, acting as his or her proxy.

The archetypal example of this would be taking a contract out on someone else, in which a hit man commits the act of murder on a specified target for the client, e.g.
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Ritual killing is the killing of a victim performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. If it takes place outside the societal norm, it is subject to criminal prosecution, and qualifies as ritual murder.
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