Battle of Hohenlinden (1800)

Battle of Hohenlinden
Part of the War of the Second Coalition
DateDecember 3, 1800
LocationHohenlinden, near Munich
ResultDecisive French victory
Combatants
French RepublicAustrian Empire
Commanders
General MoreauArchduke John
Strength
56,00062,000
Casualties
3,000 dead and wounded4,600 dead and wounded,
9,000 captured,
76 cannons lost


The Battle of Hohenlinden near Munich was fought on December 3, 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars. The battle resulted in a French victory under General Jean Moreau against the Austrians and Bavarians under Archduke John, forcing the Austrians to sign an armistice.

Moreau's 56,000 strong army engaged some 64,000 Austrians and Bavarians. Using Richepanse's division in a surprise flanking move, Moreau ambushed the Austrians on a road through the Ebersberg forest. This decisive victory, coupled with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte's victory at Marengo, ended the War of the Second Coalition. The following February (1801), the Austrians signed the Treaty of Lunéville, accepting French control up to the Rhine and the French puppet republics in Italy and the Netherlands. The subsequent Treaty of Amiens between France and Britain began the longest break in the wars of the Napoleonic period.

At the end of November, the 18 year old Archduke John, prodded by his second-in-command Franz Lauer and chief-of-staff Franz Weyrother, launched a sudden offensive against Moreau's French forces. In a tough action at Ampfing on December 1, the Austrians drove back a French rear guard under Michel Ney. Moreau decided to deploy his army in open ground near Hohenlinden. To approach his position, the Austro-Bavarians had to advance directly west through heavily wooded terrain.

Battle Plans

Moreau's main defensive position consisted of four divisions facing east. From north to south, these were commanded by Claude Legrand (8,000), Louis Bastoul (6,000), Ney (10,000) and Emmanuel, marquis de Grouchy (9,000). The three northernmost divisions belonged to Paul Grenier's corps. Moreau held 2,000 cavalry in reserve. Off to the south were two more divisions, under Antoine Richepanse (11,000) and Charles Decaen (10,000). Moreau planned to have Richepanse march northeast to strike the Austrian left, or southern flank. His main line would maneuver in open terrain and counterattack the Austrians as they emerged from the woods. Decaen would back up Richepanse.

According to the battle plan drawn up by Weyrother, the Austrians advanced west in four columns. From north to south these were commanded by Michael von Kienmayer (16,000), Maximilien de Baillet (11,000), Johann Kollowrat (22,000) and Johann Riesch (13,000). Archduke John rode with Kollowrat's force, which used the main east-west highway. Due to the densely forested terrain and poor staff work, the Austrian columns were not mutually supporting. Their commanders mistakenly thought the French were in retreat and were rushing to catch their enemies before they could escape.

The Battle

All Austrian columns started at dawn. Kollowrat made good time and collided with Grouchy's division at 7 am. To the north, Kienmayer struck some French outposts and drove them back to the main line. Meanwhile, Riesch and Baillet, moving along forest trails amid snow and sleet squalls, fell badly behind schedule. Consequently, Richepanse's flanking column passed in front of Riesch.

At this point, two Austrian grenadier battalions sent back by Kollowrat to search for Riesch sliced Richepanse's division in half. With single-minded determination, Richepanse left his rear brigade under Jean-Baptiste Drouet to fight it out and drove to the north with his leading brigade. He fought through to the main highway then swerved west, directly into Kollowrat's rear.

Baillet, hearing gunfire from both west and south, panicked. He fragmented his command into penny packets, trying to make contact with the French in front of him and the friendly columns on either side. While Baillet dithered, Kienmayer and Kollowrat began assaulting the main French line. Grenier's divisions and Grouchy stubbornly held their ground.

About noon, Decaen came up in support of Drouet's brigade near the southern edge of the battlefield. The situation was very fluid, with units blundering into each other in the snowy woods. Eventually, Decaen halted Riesch's column and pushed it back to the east.

Hearing cannon fire to his rear, Archduke John sent back unit after unit to clear the main highway but Richepanse defeated each force. Moreau, scenting victory, ordered his other divisions to attack. At last, hemmed in on three sides by Ney, Grouchy and Richepanse, Kollowrat's column disintegrated. The Archduke escaped capture, but many of his men were not so lucky and 9,000 Austrians and Bavarians surrendered along with 76 cannons. The Austro-Bavarians reported 4,600 killed and wounded. The French admitted casualties of 1,900, but they probably lost at least 3,000 men. Bastoul was mortally wounded.

Aftermath

After the disaster, Archduke John ordered his demoralized army into a rapid retreat. Moreau pursued slowly until December 8. Then, in 15 days, his forces advanced 189 miles and captured 20,000 Austrians. On December 17, when the capable Archduke Charles relieved his brother John, the Austrian army was practically a rabble. On December 24, with French forces 50 miles from Vienna, Charles requested an armistice. The French victory at Hohenlinden set Moreau up as a potential rival to Napoleon Bonaparte.

References

  • Arnold, James R., Marengo & Hohenlinden: Napoleon's Rise to Power, Pen and Sword Books Ltd., 2005.
  • Eggenberger, David, Encyclopedia of Battles, Dover Publications, 1985.
Second Coalition" (1799–1802) was the second attempt by other European powers to contain or eliminate Revolutionary France. After Napoleon Bonaparte mounted an expedition to Egypt and, in spite of several land victories, was unable to transport his army back by sea after the
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December 3 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 1800 - Battle of Hohenlinden, which was an Austrian Defeat

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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Hohenlinden is a community in the Upper Bavarian district of Ebersberg.

Geography

Hohenlinden lies in the Munich Planning Region roughly 35 km east of Munich.
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München
Munich

Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple
Coat of arms Location

Details

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The First Republic in France, officially the French Republic (French: République française) was proclaimed on 21 September 1792, during the French Revolution.
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Jean Victor Marie Moreau (February 14, 1763 – September 2, 1813) was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but later became a rival and was banished to the United States.

Biography

Moreau was born at Morlaix in Brittany.
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Archduke Johann (or John) of Austria (January 20, 1782 - May 11, 1859) was the 13th child of Leopold, Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany and later Holy Roman Emperor. His son from a morganatic marriage was Franz Graf von Meran.
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Second Coalition" (1799–1802) was the second attempt by other European powers to contain or eliminate Revolutionary France. After Napoleon Bonaparte mounted an expedition to Egypt and, in spite of several land victories, was unable to transport his army back by sea after the
..... Click the link for more information.
Second Battle of Stockach was a battle of the War of the Second Coalition, fought between the French Directory and the Austrian Empire. The French force of 40,000 was led by Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, while the Austrian force of 60,000 was led by Archduke Charles.
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Battle of Montebello was fought on 9 June 1800 near Montebello in Lombardy. During the lead-up to the Battle of Marengo, the vanguard of the French army in Italy engaged and defeated an Austrian force in a "glorious victory".
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Battle of Trebbia was fought on June 19 1799 and resulted in the victory of the Austrians and Russians under Field Marshal Suvorov against the French under General Macdonald.

References


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Battle of Bergen, also called the Battle of Bergen-Binnen, was fought on September 19, 1799, and resulted in a French-Dutch victory under General Brune and General Daendels against the Russians and British under the Duke of York who had landed in North Holland.
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Battle of Castricum (October 6, 1799) saw a Franco-Dutch force defeat an Anglo-Russian force near Castricum, Netherlands. The battle was fought during the War of the Second Coalition against Revolutionary France between French and Dutch forces under the command of General Guillaume
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Siege of Genoa (April 6-June 4, 1800) the Austrians besieged and captured Genoa but the smaller French force under André Masséna had diverted enough Austrian troops so that Napoleon could win the Battle of Marengo.
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Battle of Stockach was fought on May 3 1800 and resulted the victory of French under General Lecourbe against the Austrians under the Prince of Lorraine-Vaudemont.
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Battle of Marengo (14 June 1800) Napoleon's French forces drove back Austrian General Michael von Melas's surprise attack near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy, causing the Austrians to evacuate much of Italy.
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Battle of Algeciras Bay was two separate battles in fact between an allied French-Spanish fleet and the British near Gibraltar in July 1801. In the first battle, an attack by the larger British fleet was driven off with the loss of one ship of the line which was captured by the
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Siege of Alexandria was fought between 17 August and 2 September, 1801, during the French Revolutionary Wars, between French and British forces and was the last action of the Egyptian Campaign.
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Hohenlinden is a community in the Upper Bavarian district of Ebersberg.

Geography

Hohenlinden lies in the Munich Planning Region roughly 35 km east of Munich.
..... Click the link for more information.
München
Munich

Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple
Coat of arms Location

Details

..... Click the link for more information.
December 3 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 1800 - Battle of Hohenlinden, which was an Austrian Defeat

..... Click the link for more information.
8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. Marked by French revolutionary fervour and military innovations, the campaigns saw the French Revolutionary Armies
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Motto
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem
"La Marseillaise"


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Jean Victor Marie Moreau (February 14, 1763 – September 2, 1813) was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but later became a rival and was banished to the United States.

Biography

Moreau was born at Morlaix in Brittany.
..... Click the link for more information.


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