For the Amon Tobin album with this name, see Bricolage (album). For the content management system, see Bricolage (software).

Bricolage, pronounced /ˌbɹi.koʊˈlɑʒ/, /ˌbɹɪ.koʊˈlɑʒ/[1] is a term used in several disciplines, among them the visual arts and literature, to refer to:
  • the construction or creation of a work from a diverse range of things which happen to be available;
  • a work created by such a process.
It is borrowed from the French word bricolage, from the verb bricoler – equivalent to the English "do-it-yourself", the core meaning in French being, however, "fiddle, tinker" and, by extension, "make creative and resourceful use of whatever materials are to hand (regardless of their original purpose)".

Bricolage as a design approach – in the sense of building by trial and error – is often contrasted to engineering: theory-based construction.

A person who engages in bricolage is a bricoleur: someone who invents his or her own strategies for using existing materials in a creative, resourceful, and original way.


Children's Geographies

Hugh Matthews and Faith Tucker (2006) discuss the bricolage of rural teenaged girls. Their research is based in rural south Northamptonshire and portrays the ways in which young people carve out their own environments from otherwise adult-defined spaces.

Cultural studies

In cultural studies bricolage is used to mean the processes by which people acquire objects from across social divisions to create new cultural identities. In particular, it is a feature of subcultures such as, for example, the punk movement. Here, objects that possess one meaning (or no meaning) in the dominant culture are acquired and given a new, often subversive meaning. For example, the safety pin became a form of decoration in punk culture.


Instrumental Bricolage in music would include the use of found objects as instruments:
  • Irish Spoons
  • Australian slap bass made from a tea chest
  • comb and wax paper for humming through
  • gumleaf humming
  • Largophone (made from a stick and bottle tops)
  • Trindanian Steel drums (made from industrial storage drums)
  • African drums and thumb pianos made from recycled pots and pans.
Stylistic Bricolage is the inclusion of common musical devices with new uses. Shuker [1998 Popular Music: Key Concepts ] writes "Punk best emphasized such stylistic bricolage". Two of the dominant concepts of the Punk movement: DIY (do it yourself) and anti-establishmentarism, fuel the Bricolage style. Operatic Rock is another example: it is a new use of Opera mixed with old fashioned Rock. Occasionally Bricolage appears in Pop music with the use of unusual cultural influences such as folkloric objects such as Irish spoons, Spanish modes, Slavic rhythms, Indian singing-style or Arabic chants for example.

Musical Bricolage flourishes in music of sub-cultures where:
  • experimentation is part of daily life (pioneers, immigrants, artistic communities),
  • access to resources is limited (such as in remote, discriminated or financially disconnected sub-cultures) which limits commercial influence (eg. acoustic performers, gypsies, ghetto music, hippie, folk or traditional musicians) and
  • there is a political or social drive to seek individuality (eg. Rap music, peace-drives, drummers circles)
Unlike other bricolage fields
  • intimate knowledge of resources is not necessary (many Punk musicians are not classically trained. Classical training discourages creativity in preference for accuracy).
  • careful observation and listening is not necessary, it is common in spontaneous music to welcome 'errors' and disharmony.
Like other bricolage fields, Bricolage music still values
  • trusting one's ideas
  • self-correcting structures (targeted audiences, even if limited)
Bricolage is the name of a 1997 album by the Electronic Jazz Breakbeat artist Amon Tobin.
"bRiCoLAge #1" is a Girl Talk album released in 2003.
Bricolage is the name of a Glaswegian band made up of Wallace Meek (guitar, bass, vocals), Graham Wann (guitar, vocals), Darren Cameron (bass, keyboards, vocals) and Colin Kearney (drums). "the.bricoleur" is the name of a musical project started in 2005 by Michael Lawrence (the.bricoleur).


In his book The Savage Mind (1962, English translation 1966), French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss used the word bricolage' to describe the characteristic patterns of mythological thought. [2]

Jacques Derrida extends this notion to any discourse. "If one calls bricolage the necessity of borrowing one's concept from the text of a heritage which is more or less coherent or ruined, it must be said that every discourse is bricoleur." [3]

Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, in their 1972 book Anti-Oedipus, identify bricolage as the characteristic mode of production of the schizophrenic producer.[4]


MacGyver is a television series in which the protagonist is the paragon of a bricoleur.

Visual Art

In art, bricolage is a technique where works are constructed from various materials available or on hand, and is seen as a characteristic of postmodern works.

These materials may be mass-produced or "junk". See also: Merz, polystylism, collage.



In biology the biologist François Jacob uses the term bricolage to describe the apparently cobbled-together character of much biological structure, and views it as a consequence of the evolutionary history of the organism. [5]


In the discussion of constructionism Seymour Papert discusses two styles of solving problems. Contrary to the analytical style of solving problems he describes bricolage as a way to learn and solve problems by trying, testing, playing around.

Computer Games

In the Bungie Studios computer game Marathon, Durandal (a self-aware and "Rampant" AI) says, "Freedom is being the bricoleur, the mason" in a reference to his quest to become free. [6]

Information technology

Information systems

In information systems, bricolage is used by Claudio Ciborra (1992) [7] to describe the way in which Strategic Information Systems (SIS) can be built in order to maintain successful competitive advantage over a longer period of time than standard SIS. By valuing tinkering and allowing SIS to evolve from the bottom-up, rather than implementing it from the top-down, the firm will end up with something that is deeply rooted in the organisational culture that is specific to that firm and is much less easily imitated.

There is also a content management system called Bricolage. See [1] In the FAQ regarding its name it references the concept of Claude Lévi-Strauss.


In her book Life on the Screen (1995), Sherry Turkle discusses the concept of bricolage as it applies to problem solving in code projects and workspace productivity. She advocates the "bricoleur style" of programming as a valid and underexamined alternative to what she describes as the conventional structured "planner" approach. In this style of coding, the programmer works without an exhaustive preliminary specification, opting instead for a step-by-step growth and re-evaluation process. In her essay Epistemological Pluralism, Turkle writes: "The bricoleur resembles the painter who stands back between brushstrokes, looks at the canvas, and only after this contemplation, decides what to do next."

Organization and Management

Karl Weick identifies the following requirements for successful bricolage in organizations.[8]
  • intimate knowledge of resources
  • careful observation and listening
  • trusting one's ideas
  • self-correcting structures, with feedback


1. ^
2. ^ Claude Lévi-Strauss, La Pensée sauvage (Paris, 1962). English translation as The Savage Mind (Chicago, 1966). ISBN 0-226-47484-4. See also [3] [4]
3. ^ Jacques Derrida, "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences"
4. ^ Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem, and Helen R. Lane. Continuum edition. London: Continuum, 2004 (1972). p.7-8.
5. ^ Molino, Jean (2000). "Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Music and Language", The Origins of Music. Cambridge, Mass: A Bradford Book, The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23206-5. (p.169). See also "Bicoid, nanos, and bricolage" by PZ Myers.
6. ^ Screens from the Bungie game "Marathon." From Level 14, "Habe Quiddam" Terminal 2: "Success" Message
7. ^ Ciborra, C (1992). "From Thinking to Tinkering: The Grassroots of Strategic Information Systems", The Information Society 8, 297-309
8. ^ Karl Weick, "Organizational Redesign as Improvisation", reprinted in Making Sense of the Organization
6. Matthews, H. & Tucker, F. (2006) On the Other side of the tracks: the psychogeographies and everyday lives of rural teenagers in the UK. In: Spencer, C. & Blades, M. (eds) Children and their Environments: Learning, Using and Designing Spaces. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. p. 161-175.
Amon Tobin is a musician, DJ, and producer known for his massive sound walls of sampled jazz fused with drum and bass, intelligent dance music and samba.


Amon Adonai Santos de Araujo Tobin was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
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(1997) Permutation

Bricolage became the first release for drum and bass artist, Amon Tobin, who was now recording under his own name and on the label Ninja Tune in 1997. Bricolage is one of only 11 albums to receive a 10.
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A Content Management System (CMS) is a software system used for content management. Content management systems are deployed primarily for interactive use by a potentially large number of contributors.
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Bricolage is a content management system (CMS) written in the Perl programming language.

Bricolage has been touted as an Enterprise Class CMS,[1] competitive in features and capability to high end, high cost proprietary products.
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International Phonetic Alphabet

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.

The International
Phonetic Alphabet
Nonstandard symbols
Extended IPA
Naming conventions
IPA for English The
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visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily visual in nature, such as painting, photography, printmaking, and filmmaking. Those that involve three-dimensional objects, such as sculpture and architecture, are called plastic arts.
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Literature literally "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter) as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary, or works of art, which in Western culture are mainly prose, both fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry.
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French (français, pronounced [fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ]) is a Romance language originally spoken in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland, and today by about 300 million people around the world as either
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Design, usually considered in the context of the applied arts, engineering, architecture, and other such creative endeavors, is used both as a noun and a verb. As a verb, "to design" refers to the process of originating and developing a plan for a product, structure, system, or
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Cultural studies is an academic discipline which combines political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in
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subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong.
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This article is written like a personal reflection or and may require .
Please [ improve this article] by rewriting this article in an . (, talk)

The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock music.
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A safety pin is a device most commonly used to attach two pieces of fabric together.


The origin of the safety pin dates back to the Mycenaeans during the 14th century B.C. (Late Mycenaean III era).
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(1997) Permutation

Bricolage became the first release for drum and bass artist, Amon Tobin, who was now recording under his own name and on the label Ninja Tune in 1997. Bricolage is one of only 11 albums to receive a 10.
..... Click the link for more information.
Amon Tobin is a musician, DJ, and producer known for his massive sound walls of sampled jazz fused with drum and bass, intelligent dance music and samba.


Amon Adonai Santos de Araujo Tobin was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
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Gaelic - Glaschu
Scots - Glesca, Glesga

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Claude Lévi-Strauss (IPA pronunciation [klod levi stʁos]) (born November 28, 1908) is a French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture.
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Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French /ʒak dɛʁida/[1], in English /ʒæk dɛɹɪˈdɑː/
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Gilles Deleuze (IPA: [ʒil dəløz]), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century.
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Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French militant, institutional psychotherapist and philosopher, a founder of both schizoanalysis and ecosophy.
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mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning 'the way of producing') is a specific combination of:
  • productive forces: these include human labour power and the means of production (eg.

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Classification & external resources

Eugen Bleuler (1857–1939) coined the term "Schizophrenia" in 1908
ICD-10 F 20.
ICD-9 295

OMIM 181500
DiseasesDB 11890
MedlinePlus 000928
eMedicine med/2072   emerg/520

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MacGyver is an American adventure television series, produced in Canada, about a , extremely resourceful secret agent Angus MacGyver played by Richard Dean Anderson. The series was created by Lee David Zlotoff and executive produced by Henry Winkler and John Rich.
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Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism.
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Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, or series production) is the production of large amounts of standardized products on production lines.
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Kurt Schwitters (June 20, 1887 - January 8, 1948) was a German painter who was born in Hannover, Germany.

Schwitters worked in several genres and media, including Dadaism, Constructivism, Surrealism, poetry, sound, painting, collage, sculpture, graphic design, typography and
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Polystylism is the use of multiple styles or of music, and is seen as a postmodern characteristic.

Some prominent contemporary composers commonly listed as polystylist include Ciarán Farrell, Lera Auerbach, Yitzhak Yedid, Sofia Gubaidulina, George Rochberg, Alfred Schnittke,
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Collage (From the French: coller, to stick) is regarded as a work of visual arts made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole.
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Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, "life"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the scientific study of life.
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A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. Typically biologists study organisms and their relationship to their environment.
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