brussels sprout

This article is about the plant. For the pencil game, see Sprouts (game).


Brussels sprout
Enlarge picture
Brussels sprouts, cultivar unknown
Species
Brassica oleracea
Cultivar group
Gemmifera Group
Origin
Brussels, year unknown
Cultivar group members
unknown


The Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group) is a cultivar group of Wild Cabbage cultivated for its small (typically 2.5-4 cm diameter) leafy green heads, which resemble miniature cabbages. The name stems from the original place of cultivation, not because of the vegetable's popularity in Brussels.
<gallery perrow="1"> Image:BrusselsSproutField200503_CopyrightKaihsuTai.jpg|A field of Brussels sprouts after harvest Image:BrusselsSprouts-OnVine.jpg|Brussels sprouts on the stalk Image:Brussels-sprouts-on-stalk.jpg|Brussels sprouts on stalks </gallery>

Cultivation

Forerunners to modern Brussels sprouts were likely cultivated in Ancient Rome and the 1200s in what is now Belgium.[] The first written reference dates to 1587.[0] During the sixteenth century they enjoyed a popularity in the southern Netherlands that eventually spread throughout the cooler parts of Northern Europe.[0]

Production of Brussels sprouts in the United States began around 1800, when French settlers brought them to Louisiana.[0] The first plantings in California's Central Coast began in the 1920s, with significant production beginning in the 1940s. Currently there are several thousand acres planted in coastal areas of San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties of California, which offer an ideal combination of coastal fog and cool temperatures year-round. The harvest season lasts from June through January.[2][0] They are also grown in Baja California, where the harvest season is from December through June.[2]

Nearly all United States production is in California, with approximately 2% of the crop grown in Long Island, New York.[4] Total United States production is approximately 32,000 tons, with a value of $27 million.[0] Ontario, Canada produces approximately 1,000 tons per year.[5] In Continental Europe the largest producers are the Netherlands, at 82,000 metric tons, and Germany, at 10,000 tons. England has production comparable to that of the Netherlands, but is not generally exported internationally. [6]

Brussels sprouts grow in temperature ranges of 45 to 75°F, with highest yields at 60 to 65°F.[0] Plants grow from seeds in seed beds or greenhouses, and are transplanted to growing fields.[0]. Fields are ready for harvest 90-180 days after planting.[0] The edible sprouts grow like buds in a spiral array on the side of long thick stalks of approximately 2-4 feet in height, maturing over several weeks from the lower to the upper part of the stalk. Sprouts may be picked by hand into baskets, in which case several harvests are made of 5-15 sprouts at a time, by cutting the entire stalk at once for processing, or by mechanical harvester, depending on variety.[0] Each stalk can produce 2 1/2 to 3 pounds, although the commercial yield is approximately 2 pounds per stalk.[0] Once harvested, sprouts last 3-5 weeks under ideal near-freezing conditions before wilting and discoloring, and about half as long at refrigerator temperature.[0]. Europeans prefer smaller varieties with bulbs approximately 1/2 inch in diameter, while American varieties are 1-2 inches.[0] Many consider the flavour to be best in mid to late winter, after the plants have been exposed to some cold.

Brussels sprouts are among the same family that includes cabbage, collard greens, broccoli, kale, and kohlrabi. They contain good amounts of vitamin A, vitamin C, folic acid and dietary fibre. Moreover, they are believed to protect against colon cancer, due to their containing sinigrin.

Cooking

In the UK, they are a traditional winter vegetable, and are often eaten boiled with a roast dinner, particularly at Christmas. They can also be stir-fried or made into soup.

According to a survey in 2002, Brussels sprouts are Britain's most hated vegetable, and it has become a cliché there and in the United States that children dislike the vegetable. Overcooking releases sulphur compounds in the vegetables that give it a distinctive smell commonly found unpleasant. If correctly cooked, the unpleasant smell is avoided and the vegetable possesses a delicate nutty flavour. Microwaving, stir frying and steaming are also options.

The usual method of preparing a Brussels sprout for cooking is first to cut off the base together with any remaining stem, and then to peel away and discard the surface leaves that are loosened by this cut.

Commonly the base is 'crossed' with a knife under the belief that this will lead to more even cooking (carrying a folkloric association of "keeping the Devil out"). Others believe that this crossing procedure leads to a leaching of flavours and that it should be avoided. Crossing can also lead to the loss of leaves during cooking and the break up of the Brussels sprout.

Eating record

The record for "speed eating" sprouts is 44 in a minute. [8]

Grammatical usage

The term Brussels sprout is a countable noun whose plural form is Brussels sprouts. A commonly used alternative form is Brussel sprout, whose plural is Brussel sprouts. However, linking the name with the Belgian capital of Brussels would argue against dropping the last "s" in the first word (although the Dutch name for the city is "Brussel").

Style Consideration
Since the Chicago Manual of Style prefers to lowercase words derived from geographical names when used with a nonliteral meaning, they would not capitalize brussels sprouts.

References

1. ^ Brussels Sprouts. University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
2. ^ Where Brussels Sprouts are Growing Today. Ocean Mist Farms. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
3. ^ Brussels sprouts info. Pfyffer Associates. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
4. ^ Crop Profile for Brussels Sprouts in California. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
5. ^ Siva Mailvaganam (August 3, 2004). Area, Production and Farm Value ofSpecified Commercial Vegetable Crops, Ontario, 1998-2001. Ontario Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Rural Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
6. ^ The small market study: Brussels sprouts.. SMP. Retrieved on .
7. ^ .

80% to 85% of US production is for the frozen food market, with the remainder for fresh consumption.
8. ^ Guinness Book of Records 2006

External links

species is one of the basic units of biological classification. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
..... Click the link for more information.
B. oleracea

Binomial name
Brassica oleracea
L.

Brassica oleracea or Wild Cabbage, is a species of Brassica
..... Click the link for more information.
cultivar is a cultivated plant that has been selected and given a unique name because it has desirable characteristics (decorative or useful) that distinguish it from otherwise similar plants of the same species. When propagated it retains those characteristics.
..... Click the link for more information.
Brussels
Bruxelles / Brussel

Grand Place / Grote Markt

Flag
Seal
Nickname: European Union capital, Comic City
..... Click the link for more information.
B. oleracea

Binomial name
Brassica oleracea
L.

Brassica oleracea or Wild Cabbage, is a species of Brassica
..... Click the link for more information.
cultivar is a cultivated plant that has been selected and given a unique name because it has desirable characteristics (decorative or useful) that distinguish it from otherwise similar plants of the same species. When propagated it retains those characteristics.
..... Click the link for more information.
B. oleracea

Binomial name
Brassica oleracea
L.

Brassica oleracea or Wild Cabbage, is a species of Brassica
..... Click the link for more information.
Brussels
Bruxelles / Brussel

Grand Place / Grote Markt

Flag
Seal
Nickname: European Union capital, Comic City
..... Click the link for more information.
Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea.
..... Click the link for more information.
Centuries: 12nd century - 13rd century - 14th century

1170s 1180s 1190s - 1200s - 1210s 1220s 1230s
1200 1201 1202 1203 1204
1205 1206 1207 1208 1209

- -
-

Events and Trends


..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Eendracht maakt macht   (Dutch)
L'union fait la force"   (French)
Einigkeit macht stark
..... Click the link for more information.
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 through 1600.

See also: 16th century in literature

Events

1500s

  • 1500s: Mississippian culture disappears.

..... Click the link for more information.

..... Click the link for more information.
coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the ocean. A coastline is properly a line on a map indicating the disposition of a coast, but the word is often used to refer to the coast itself.
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Baja California

Flag
Seal

Country  Mexico
Capital Mexicali
Municipalities 5
Largest City Tijuana
Government
..... Click the link for more information.
Long Island is an island in southeast New York, USA. It has an area of 3,567 square miles (10,377 km²) and a population of 7,448,618 as of the 2000 census, with the population estimated at 7,559,372 as of July 1, 2006, making it the largest island in the 48 contiguous U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
Ontario


Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains)

Capital Toronto
Largest city Toronto
Official languages English (de facto)
Government
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Je maintiendrai"   (French)
"Ik zal handhaven"   (Dutch)
"I shall stand fast"1

Anthem
..... Click the link for more information.
seedbed is a specially prepared area of the garden that has been made suitable for the sowing and germination of plant seeds. The preparation of a seedbed may include:
  1. The removal of debris.

..... Click the link for more information.
greenhouse (also called a glasshouse or hothouse) is a building where plants are cultivated.

Explanation

Main article: solar greenhouse (technical)

..... Click the link for more information.
cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) is a plant of the Family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae). It is herbaceous, biennial, and a dicotyledonous flowering plant with leaves forming a characteristic compact cluster.
..... Click the link for more information.
Collards, also called collard greens or borekale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), are various loose-leafed cultivars of the cabbage plant. The plant is grown for its large, dark-colored, edible leaves and as a garden ornamental, mainly in Brazil, Portugal,
..... Click the link for more information.
Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). It is classified as the Italica Cultivar Group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli possesses abundant fleshy flower heads, usually green in colour, arranged in a tree-like fashion on
..... Click the link for more information.
Kale (pronounced "ky-el" and also called Borecole) is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), green in color, in which the central leaves do not form a head. It is considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most domesticated forms.
..... Click the link for more information.
Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea Gongylodes Group) is a low, stout cultivar of the cabbage that will grow almost anywhere. It has been selected for its swollen, nearly spherical, Sputnik-like shape.
..... Click the link for more information.
Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. It exists not as a single compound, but in several forms. In foods of animal origin, the major form of vitamin A is an alcohol (retinol), but can also exist as an aldehyde (retinal), or as an acid (retinoic acid).
..... Click the link for more information.
Vitamin C or L -ascorbate is an essential nutrient for higher primates, and a small number of other species. The presence of ascorbate is required for a range of essential metabolic reactions in all animals and in plants and is made internally by almost all organisms,
..... Click the link for more information.
Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. These occur naturally in food and can also be taken as supplements. Folate gets its name from the Latin word folium ("leaf").
..... Click the link for more information.
Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as cellulose and many other plant components such as dextrins, inulin,
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.