Codex Alexandrinus

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Folio 65v from the Codex Alexandrinus contains the end of the Gospel of Luke with the decorative tailpiece found at the end of each book.


The Codex Alexandrinus (London, British Library, MS Royal 1. D. V-VIII; Gregory-Aland no. A or 02) is a 5th century manuscript of the Greek Bible, containing the majority of the Septuagint and the New Testament. Along with the Codex Sinaiticus and the Codex Vaticanus, it is one of the earliest and most complete manuscripts of the Bible. It derives its name from Alexandria where it resided for a number of years before given to the British in the 17th century.

Contents

The text in the codex is written in two columns in uncial script, with between 46 and 52 lines per column and 20 to 25 letters per line. The beginning lines of each book are written in red ink and sections within the book are marked by a larger letter set into the margin. Words are written continuously in a large square uncial hand with no accents and only some breathings (possibly added by a later editor).

It contains a complete copy of the LXX, including the deuterocanonical books 3 and 4 Maccabees, Psalm 151 and the 14 Odes. The "Epistle to Marcellinus" attributed to Saint Athanasius and the Eusibian summary of the Psalms are inserted before the Book of Psalms.

The codex also contains all of the books of the New Testament, in addition to 1 Clement (lacking 57:7-63) and the homily known as 2 Clement (up to 12:5a).

There is also an appendix marked in the index, which lists the Psalms of Solomon, and probably contained more apocryphal/pseudepigraphical books but has been torn off. The pages containing these books have also been lost.

Due to damage and lost folios, various passages are missing or have defects:
  • Lacking: 1 Sam 12:18-14:9 (1 leaf); Ps 49:19-79:10 (9 leaves); Matt 1:1-25:6 (26 leaves); John 6:50-8:52 (2 leaves); 2 Cor 4:13-12:6 (3 leaves)
  • Damaged: Gen 14:14-17, 15:1-5, 15:16-19, 16:6-9 (lower portion of torn leaf lost)
  • Defects due to torn leaves: Gen 1:20-25, 1:29-2:3, Lev 8:6,7,16; Sirach 50:21f, 51:5
There are 773 vellum folios (630 in the Old Testament and 143 in the New Testament). The manuscript measures 12.6 by 10.4 inches. Most of the folios were originally gathered into quires of 8 leaves each. However, in modern times it was rebound into quires of 6 leaves each. The only decorations in the manuscript are decorative tailpieces at the end of each book (see illustration). It also shows a tendency to increase the size of the first letter of each sentence.

Provenance

The manuscript's original provenance is unknown. A 13th or 14th century Arabic note on folio 1 reads: "Bound to the Patriarchal Cell in the Fortress of Alexandria. Whoever removes it thence shall be excommunicated and cut off. Written by Athanasius the humble."[1] A 17th century Latin note on a flyleaf (from binding in a royal library) states that the manuscript was given to a patriarchate of Alexandria in 1098 (donum dedit cubicuo Patriarchali anno 814 Mrtyrum), although this may well be "merely an inaccurate attempt at deciphering the Arabic note by Athanasius."[2] The codex was brought to Constantinople in 1621 by Cyril Lucar (first a patriarch of Alexandria, then later a patriarch of Constantinople) who then presented it to Charles I of England in 1627, thus becoming part of the Royal Library, British Museum and now the British Library. It was saved from the fire at Ashburnam House (the Cotton library) on 23 October 1731, by the librarian, Dr Bentley.

Textual features

Textual critics have had a challenging task in classifying the Codex, with the exact relationship to other known texts and families still disputed. The gospels are mostly of the Byzantine text-type, but there are a number of Alexandrian features. Alexandrinus follows Alexandrian readings through the rest of the New Testament. However, the text goes from closely resembling Codex Sinaiticus in the Paul, to more closely resembling the text of a number of papyri (P74 for Acts, P47 for the Apocalypse). The gospels are cited as a "consistently cited witness of the third order" in the critical apparatus of the Novum Testamentum Graece, while the rest of the New Testament is of the "first order".

See also

References

1. ^ McKendrick, Scot "The Codex Alexandrinus: Or the dangers of being a named manuscript" in The Bible as a Book: The Transmission of the Greek text ed. S McKendrick & O. A. O'Sullivan; London: British Library & New Castle, 2003
2. ^ ibid. p8
  • Calkins, Robert G. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1983.
  • Kenyon, Frederick G. Codex Alexandrinus. London: British Museum, 1909. (Facsimile edition)

Further reading

  • Hernández, Juan. Scribal Habits and Theological Influences in the Apocalypse: The Singular Readings of Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Ephraemi. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006.

External links

The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini, the year of our Lord.

Overview

The Western Roman Empire is ruled by a succession of weak emperors, and true power falls increasingly into the hands of powerful generals.
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manuscript is any document that is written by hand, as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way. The term may also be used for information that is hand-recorded in other ways than writing, for example inscriptions that are chiselled upon a hard material or scratched
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Septuagint (IPA: /ˈsɛptuədʒɪnt/), or simply "LXX", is the name commonly given in the West to the Koine Greek version of the Old Testament, translated in stages between the 3rd and 1st centuries
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New Testament (Greek: Καινή Διαθήκη, Kainē Diathēkē) is the name given to the final portion of the Christian Bible, written after the Old Testament.
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Codex Sinaiticus (London, Brit. Libr., Add. 43725; Gregory-Aland nº א (Aleph) or 01) is a 4th century uncial manuscript of the Greek Bible, written between 330–350.
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Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; Gregory-Aland no. B or 03) is one of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Bible. It is slightly older than Codex Sinaiticus, both of which were probably transcribed in the 4th century.
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Uncial is a majuscule script commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. From the 8th century to the 13th century the script was more often used as a display script in headings and titles.
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Septuagint (IPA: /ˈsɛptuədʒɪnt/), or simply "LXX", is the name commonly given in the West to the Koine Greek version of the Old Testament, translated in stages between the 3rd and 1st centuries
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Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible that are not extant in Hebrew.
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3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books but Protestants and Catholics regard it as apocryphal. The book actually has nothing to do with the Maccabees or their revolt against the Greek empire, as described in 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees.
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4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. While once accepted as a deuterocanonical book by the Orthodox, it is increasingly relegated to an appendix of apocryphal works.
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Psalms • תהילים (Tehilim)''
Psalm 23 • Psalm 51 • Psalm 67 • Psalm 74
Psalm 83 • Psalm 89 • Psalm 91 • Psalm 95
Psalm 98 • Psalm 100 • Psalm 103
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Odes (΄Ωδαὶ) is a book of the Bible found only in Eastern Orthodox Bibles and included or appended after Psalms in Alfred Rahlfs' critical edition of the Septuagint.
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Pope Athanasius I of Alexandria (c. 293-May 2, 373) also known as St. Athanasius The Apostolic (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios) was a theologian, Pope of Alexandria, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.
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Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, "Eusebius [the friend] of Pamphilus") was a bishop of Caesarea in Palaestina and is often referred to as the father of Church history because of his work in recording the history of the
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New Testament (Greek: Καινή Διαθήκη, Kainē Diathēkē) is the name given to the final portion of the Christian Bible, written after the Old Testament.
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Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
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Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
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Psalms of Solomon are a group of eighteen psalms (religious songs or poems) that are not part of any scriptural canon. They are distinct from, but may be modeled after or derived from the Book of Psalms of the Jewish and Christian Bibles, which are traditionally attributed to David
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Tanakh
Torah | Nevi'im | Ketuvim
Books of Nevi'im
First Prophets
1. Joshua
2. Judges
3. Samuel
4. Kings
Later Prophets
5. Isaiah
6. Jeremiah
7.
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Tanakh
Torah | Nevi'im | Ketuvim
Books of Ketuvim
Three Poetic Books
1. Psalms
2. Proverbs
3. Job
Five Megillot
4. Song of Songs
5. Ruth
6.
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The Gospel of Matthew is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. It narrates an account of the life and ministry of Jesus. It describes his genealogy, his miraculous birth and childhood, his baptism and temptation, his ministry of healing and
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"John" in the Bible

Johannine literature
Gospel of John
First Epistle of John
Second Epistle of John
Third Epistle of John
Revelation
Authorship of literature

Names
John the Apostle
Disciple whom Jesus loved
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The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book in the New Testament, written by Paul the Apostle.

Textual issues

While there is little doubt among scholars that Paul is the author, there is discussion over whether the letter was originally one letter or a
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GENESIS is a project maintained by The Women's Library at London Metropolitan University. It provides an online database and a list of sources with an intent to support research into women's history.
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Tanakh
Torah | Nevi'im | Ketuvim
Books of the Torah
1. Genesis
2. Exodus
3. Leviticus
4. Numbers
5.
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The Wisdom of Ben Sira (or The Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach or merely Sirach), also called Ecclesiasticus (not to be confused with Ecclesiastes) by some Christians, is a book written circa 180–175 BC.
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Vellum (from the Old French Vélin, for "calfskin"[1]) is a sort of processed animal hide as a material for use in producing written works in the scroll, codex or book form in the pre-printing Age using joined pages, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable
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A quire can be any of several things: a piece of pie
  • a quire (architecture) is part of a church.
  • a paper quire is a quantity, usually 24 or 25, of sheets of paper.
  • a variant spelling of choir
  • Quentin Quire, a fictional comic book character

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