Deictic expression

In pragmatics and linguistics, deixis (Greek: δειξις display, demonstration, or reference, the meaning "point of reference" in contemporary linguistics having been taken over from Chrysippus, Stoica 2,65) is a process whereby words or expressions rely absolutely on context. The origo is the context from which the reference is made—in other words, the viewpoint that must be understood in order to interpret the utterance. (If Tom is speaking and he says "I", he refers to himself, but if he is listening to Betty and she says "I", then the origo is with Betty and the reference is to her.) A word that depends on deictic clues is called a deictic or a deictic word. Deixis is a type of exophora.

Pro-forms are generally considered to be deictics, but a finer distinction is often made between personal pro-forms such as I, you, and it (commonly referred to as personal pronouns) and pro-forms that refer to places and times such as now, then, here, there. In most texts, the word deictic implies the latter but not necessarily the former. (In philosophical logic, the former and latter are collectively called indexicals.)

It is common for languages to show at least a two-way referential distinction in their deictic system: proximal, i.e. near or closer to the speaker, and distal, i.e. far from the speaker and/or closer to the addressee. English exemplifies this with such pairs as this and that, here and there, etc. In other languages the distinction is three-way: proximal, i.e. near the speaker, medial, i.e. near the addressee, and distal, i.e. far from both. This is the case in a few Romance languages and in Korean, Japanese and Thai.

Spatial deictics are often reused as anaphoric pro-forms that stand for phrases or propositions (that is, items of discourse, not items of the outside reality). Consider the following statement:

There may be ice hidden in unexplored places of the Moon. This ice could be useful for future lunar expeditions.


In the above example, this ice is not near the speaker in the physical sense, but the deictic doesn't refer to real ice. This ice refers to the phrase ice hidden in unexplored places, which is conceptually near the speaker in the discourse flow.

Types of deixis

  • Person deixis: see grammatical person.
  • Discourse deixis: where reference is being made to the current discourse or part thereof. Examples: "see section 8.4", "that was a really mean thing to say", "This sentence is false". The last is an example of token-reflexive discourse deixis, in which a word in the utterance refers to the utterance itself.
  • Switch reference is a type of discourse deixis, and a grammatical feature found in some languages, which indicates whether the argument of one clause is the same as the argument of the previous clause. In some languages this is done through same subject markers and different subject markers. In the translated example "John punched Tom, and left-[same subject marker]," it is John who left, and in "John punched Tom, and left-[different subject marker]," it is Tom who left.
  • Empathetic deixis: where different forms of the deictic are used to indicate the speaker's emotional closeness or distance from the referent.
  • Place deixis: a spatial location relative to the spatial location of the speaker. it can be proximal or distal, or sometimes medial. It can also be either bounded (indicating a spatial region with a clearly defined boundary, e.g. in the box) or unbounded (indicating a spatial region without a clearly defined boundary, e.g. over there)
  • Social deixis: is the use of different deictics to express social distinctions. an example is difference between formal and polite pro-forms. Relational social deixis is where the form of word used indicates the relative social status of the addressor and the addressee. For example, one pro-form might be used to address those of higher social rank, another to address those of lesser social rank, another to address those of the same social rank. By contrast, absolute social deixis indicates a social standing irrespective of the social standing of the speaker. Thus, village chiefs might always be addressed by a special pro-form, regardless of whether it is someone below them, above them or at the same level of the social hierarchy who is doing the addressing.
  • Time deixis: is reference made to particular times relative to some other time, most currently the time of utterance. For example the use of the words now or soon, or the use of tenses.

See also

References

  • Traut, Gregory P. and Kazzazi, Kerstin. 1996. Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Routledge. London and New York.
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. The ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence.
..... Click the link for more information.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist.
..... Click the link for more information.
Greek}}} 
Writing system: Greek alphabet 
Official status
Official language of:  Greece
 Cyprus
 European Union
recognised as minority language in parts of:
 European Union
 Italy
 Turkey
Regulated by:
..... Click the link for more information.
Chrysippus of Soli (c.280–c.207 BC) (Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς) was Cleanthes' pupil and the eventual successor as the head of stoic philosophy.
..... Click the link for more information.
In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being sequentially executed.[1] While a program itself is just a passive collection of instructions, a process is the actual execution of those instructions.
..... Click the link for more information.
A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetical value. Typically a word will consist of a root or stem and zero or more affixes.
..... Click the link for more information.
Expression may refer to:
  • idiom
  • facial expression
  • Artificial discharge of breast milk; see (Breastfeeding)
  • expression (mathematics)
  • expression (programming), an instruction to execute something that will return a value.

..... Click the link for more information.
origo is the reference point on which deictic relationships are based. In most deictic systems, the origo identifies with the current speaker (or some property thereof). For instance, if the speaker, John, were to say "This is now my fish", then John would be the origo, and the
..... Click the link for more information.
In linguistics, exophora is reference to something extralinguistic, and contrasts with endophora. Exophora can be deictic, in which special words or grammatical markings are used to make reference to something in the context of the utterance or speaker.
..... Click the link for more information.
A pro-form is a type of function word or expression that stands in for another (expresses the same content as) a word, phrase, clause, or sentence whose meaning is recoverable from the context. They are used to avoid repetitive expressions and in quantification.
..... Click the link for more information.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns.
..... Click the link for more information.
    Personal pronouns are pronouns often used as substitutes for proper or common nouns.

    English personal pronouns

    Main article: English personal pronouns


    Ordinary English has seven personal pronouns:

      ..... Click the link for more information.
      In linguistics, an addressee is an intended direct recipient of the speaker's communication. A listener is either an addressee or a bystander.

      Second-person pronouns refer to an addressee or a group including an addressee.
      ..... Click the link for more information.
      English}}} 
      Writing system: Latin (English variant) 
      Official status
      Official language of: 53 countries
      Regulated by: no official regulation
      Language codes
      ISO 639-1: en
      ISO 639-2: eng
      ISO 639-3: eng  
      ..... Click the link for more information.
      Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprisies all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire.
      ..... Click the link for more information.

       Korean
      }}} 
      Writing system: Exclusive use of Hangul (N. & S. Korea), mix of Hangul and Hanja (S. Korea), or Cyrillic alphabet (lesser used in Goryeomal
      Official status
      Official language of:  North Korea
       South Korea
      ..... Click the link for more information.
      This article contains Japanese text.
      Without proper ,
      you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of kanji or kana.

      Japanese
      日本語
      ..... Click the link for more information.
      Thai}}} 
      Official status
      Official language of: Thailand
      Regulated by: The Royal Institute
      Language codes
      ISO 639-1: th
      ISO 639-2: tha
      ISO 639-3: tha

      Thai (
      ..... Click the link for more information.
      In linguistics, anaphora is an instance of an expression referring to another.

      In general, an anaphoric expression is represented by a pro-form or some kind of deictic.
      ..... Click the link for more information.
      Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns.
      ..... Click the link for more information.
      In philosophy and logic, the liar paradox encompasses paradoxical statements such as:
      • "I am lying now."
      or
      • "This statement is false."
      or
      • "The sentence below is false."
      • "The sentence above is true.

      ..... Click the link for more information.
      In linguistics, switch reference is a morphological feature found on verbs in some languages which provides for anaphoric linkage between clauses. Specifically, a verb with switch-reference markers will indicate whether the subject of a verb is the same as or different from the
      ..... Click the link for more information.
      Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. In English, this is a property of a verb form, and expresses only time-related information.
      ..... Click the link for more information.
      In linguistics, anaphora is an instance of an expression referring to another.

      In general, an anaphoric expression is represented by a pro-form or some kind of deictic.
      ..... Click the link for more information.
        Demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference) that indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others.
        ..... Click the link for more information.
        Generic antecedents are representives of classes, indicated by a reference in ordinary language (most often a pronoun), where gender is typically unknown or irrelevant.
        ..... Click the link for more information.
        A pro-form is a type of function word or expression that stands in for another (expresses the same content as) a word, phrase, clause, or sentence whose meaning is recoverable from the context. They are used to avoid repetitive expressions and in quantification.
        ..... Click the link for more information.


        This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.