dove

Pigeons and Doves
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Feral Domestic Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in flight

Feral Domestic Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in flight
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Columbiformes
Family:Columbidae
Subfamilies


see article text
Enlarge picture
Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University


Pigeons and doves constitute the family Columbidae within the order Columbiformes, which include some 300 species of near passerine birds. In general parlance the terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably. In ornithological practice, there is a tendency for "dove" to be used for smaller species and "pigeon" for larger ones, but this is in no way consistently applied, and historically the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation between the term "dove" and "pigeon." This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. The young doves and pigeons are called "squabs."

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. The species commonly referred to just as the "pigeon" is the feral Rock Pigeon, common in many cities.

Their usually flimsy nests are made of sticks, and the two white eggs are incubated by both sexes. Doves feed on seeds, fruit and plants. Unlike most other birds (but see flamingo), the doves and pigeons produce "crop milk," which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop. Both sexes produce this highly nutritious substance to feed to the young.

Systematics and evolution

This family is a highly coherent group with no members showing obvious links with other bird families, or vice versa. The dodo and solitaires are clearly related, as discussed below, but equally lacking in obvious links with other bird families. The limited fossil record also consists only of unequivocal Columbidae species. Links to the sandgrouse and parrots have been suggested, but resemblances to the first group are due to convergent evolution and the second depend on the parrot-like features of the Tooth-billed Pigeon. However, the distinctive features of that bird seem to have arisen from its specialized diet rather than a real relationship to the parrots.

The family is usually divided into five subfamilies, but this is probably inaccurate. For example, the American ground and quail doves which are usually placed in the Columbinae seem to be two distinct subfamilies[1]. The order presented here follows Baptista et al. (1997) with some updates (Johnson & Clayton 2000, Johnson et al. 2001, Shapiro et al. 2002).

Note that the arrangement of genera and naming of subfamilies is in some cases provisional because analyzes of different DNA sequences yield results that differ, often radically, in the placement of certain (mainly Indo-Australian) genera. This ambiguity, probably caused by Long branch attraction, seems to confirm that the first pigeons evolved in the Australasian region, and that the "Treronidae" and allied forms (crowned and pheasant pigeons, for example) represent the earliest radiation of the group.

As the Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire are in all likelihood part of the Indo-Australian radiation that produced the 3 small subfamilies mentioned above with the fruit-doves and -pigeons (including the Nicobar Pigeon), they are here included as a subfamily Raphinae, pending better material evidence of their exact relationships.

Exacerbating these issues, columbids are not well represented in the fossil record. No truly primitive forms have been found to date. The genus Gerandia which most likely belongs to the Columbinae has been described from Early Miocene deposits of France. Apart from that, all other fossils belong to extant genera. For these, and for the considerable number of more recently extinct prehistoric species, see the respective genus accounts.

A list of all the species, sortable by common and scientific name, is at list of Columbidae species

Subfamily Columbinae - typical pigeons & doves

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Brown Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia phasianella.
Genus Columba including Aplopelia - Old World pigeons (33-34 living species, 2-3 recently extinct)

Genus Streptopelia including Stigmatopelia and Nesoenas - turtledoves (14-18 living species)

Genus Patagioenas - American pigeons; formerly included in Columba (17 species)

Genus Macropygia Genus Reinwardtoena (3 species)

Genus Turacoena (2 species)

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Emerald Dove, Chalcophaps indica, native to tropical southern Asia and Australia.

Subfamily N.N. - Bronzewings and relatives

Genus Turtur - African wood-doves (5 species; tentatively placed here)

Genus Oena - Namaqua Dove (tentatively placed here)

Genus Chalcophaps (2 species)

Genus Henicophaps (2 species)

Genus Phaps (3 species)

Genus Ocyphaps - Crested Pigeon

Genus Geophaps (3 species)

Genus Petrophassa - rock-pigeons (2 species)

Genus Geopelia (3-5 species)

Subfamily Leptotilinae - Zenaidine and quail-doves

Genus Zenaida (7 species)

Genus Ectopistes - Passenger Pigeon (extinct; 1914)

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White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi)
Genus Leptotila Genus Geotrygon - quail-doves Genus Starnoenas

Subfamily Columbininae - American ground doves

Genus Columbina Genus Claravis Genus Metriopelia Genus Scardafella - possibly belongs into Columbina Genus Uropelia
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Luzon Bleeding-heart Pigeon Gallicolumba crinigera, native to the Philippines.

Subfamily N.N. - Indopacific ground doves

Genus Gallicolumba (16-17 living species, 3-4 recently extinct)

Genus Trugon

Subfamily Otidiphabinae - Pheasant Pigeon

Genus Otidiphaps - Pheasant Pigeon

Subfamily Didunculinae - Tooth-billed Pigeon

Genus Didunculus

Subfamily Gourinae - crowned pigeons

Genus Goura

Subfamily N.N. ("Treroninae") - green and fruit-doves and imperial pigeons

Genus Ducula - imperial-pigeons Genus Lopholaimus - Topknot Pigeon
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Kererū (New Zealand Pigeon), Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae.


Genus Hemiphaga
  • Kererū Hemiphaga novaseelandiae
  • Parea Hemiphaga chathamensis
Genus Cryptophaps Genus Gymnophaps - mountain-pigeons Genus Ptilinopus - fruit-doves (some 50 living species, 1-2 recently extinct)

Genus Natunaornis - Viti Levu Giant Pigeon (prehistoric)

Genus Drepanoptila Genus Alectroenas - blue pigeons

Subfamily Raphinae - didines

Genus Raphus - Dodo (extinct; late 17th century)

Genus Pezophaps - Rodrigues Solitaire (extinct; c.1730)

Placement unresolved

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The unusual Nicobar Pigeon, Caloenas nicobarica
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Love Dove decoys
Genus Caloenas
  • Nicobar Pigeon, Caloenas nicobarica
  • Greater Maned Pigeon, Caloenas canacorum (prehistoric)
  • Liverpool Pigeon, "Caloenas" maculata - extinct; probably distinct genus
Genus Treron - green pigeons
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Wonga Pigeon, Leucosarcia melanoleuca, native to Australia.
Genus Phapitreron - brown doves Genus Leucosarcia - Wonga Pigeon

Genus Microgoura - Choiseul Crested Pigeon (extinct; early 20th century)

Genus Dysmoropelia Genus indeterminate
  • Henderson Island Archaic Pigeon, Columbidae gen. et sp. indet. (prehistoric)

References

  • Gibbs, Barnes and Cox, Pigeons and Doves (Pica Press 2001) ISBN 1-873403-60-7

Doves as food

Several species of pigeon or dove are used as food, and probably any could be; the powerful breast muscles characteristic of the family make excellent meat. In Europe the Wood Pigeon is commonly shot as a game bird, while Rock Pigeons were originally domesticated as a food species, and many breeds were developed for their meat-bearing qualities. The extinction of the Passenger Pigeon was at least partly due to shooting for use as food.

Doves are Kosher, and they and Turtle Doves are the only birds that may be used for a Korban. Other kosher birds may be eaten, but not brought as a Korban.

See also

Related to doves

Related to symbolism

Miscellaneous

References

  • Baptista, L. F.; Trail, P. W. & Horblit, H. M. (1997): Order Columbiformes. In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors): Handbook of birds of the world, Volume 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-22-9
  • Johnson, Kevin P. & Clayton, Dale H. (2000): Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes Contain Similar Phylogenetic. Signal for Pigeons and Doves (Aves: Columbiformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 14(1): 141–151. PDF fulltext
  • Johnson, Kevin P.; de Kort, Selvino; Dinwoodey, Karen, Mateman, A. C.; ten Cate, Carel; Lessells, C. M. & Clayton, Dale H. (2001): A molecular phylogeny of the dove genera Streptopelia and Columba. Auk 118(4): 874-887. PDF fulltext
  • Shapiro, Beth; Sibthorpe, Dean; Rambaut, Andrew; Austin, Jeremy; Wragg, Graham M.; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R. P.; Lee, Patricia L. M. & Cooper, Alan (2002): Flight of the Dodo. Science 295: 1683. doi:10.1126/science.295.5560.1683 (HTML abstract) Supplementary information

Footnotes

1. ^ Basically, the conventional treatment had 2 large subfamilies, one for the fruit-doves, imperial pigeons and fruit-pigeons, and another for nearly all of the remaining species. Additionally, there were 3 monotypic subfamilies, one each for the genera Goura, Otidiphaps and Didunculus. The old subfamily Columbinae consists of 5 distinct lineages, whereas the other 4 groups are more or less accurate representations of the evolutionary relationships.

External links

Dove may refer to:

  • The Dove, a 1927 silent film
  • Doves, a British band
  • Hawk and Dove, comic books series
  • Dove the Band of Love also known as Devo
  • Dove prism, image inversion device
  • Operation Dove by military forces

..... Click the link for more information.

Pigeon

Pigeon is a common name for birds of the taxonomic family Columbidae, whose most common species is Rock Pigeon.

Pigeon may also refer to:
  • The Pigeon, novella by Patrick Süskind
  • Pigeon, Wisconsin, a town in Trempealeau County

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C. livia

Binomial name
Columba livia
Gmelin, 1789

The Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae, doves and pigeons.
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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Chordata
Bateson, 1885

Typical Classes

See below

Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates.
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Aves
Linnaeus, 1758

Orders

About two dozen - see section below

Birds (class Aves) are bipedal, warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrate animals.
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Columbiformes
Latham, 1790

Families
  • Columbidae
  • Raphidae


The bird order Columbiformes includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae, and the extinct Dodo and the Rodrigues
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family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. Exact details of formal nomenclature depend on the Nomenclature Code which applies.
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order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). The superorder is a rank between class and order. Exact details of formal nomenclature depend on the Nomenclature Code which applies.
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Columbiformes
Latham, 1790

Families
  • Columbidae
  • Raphidae


The bird order Columbiformes includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae, and the extinct Dodo and the Rodrigues
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species is one of the basic units of biological classification. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
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Near passerine or higher land-bird assemblage are terms often given to arboreal birds or those most often believed to be related to the true passerines (order Passeriformes) due to ecological similarities; the group corresponds to some extent with the Anomalogonatae of
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Aves
Linnaeus, 1758

Orders

About two dozen - see section below

Birds (class Aves) are bipedal, warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrate animals.
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See also Wikipedia:Naming conventions (common names) and Wikipedia:Naming conventions
In science, a common name is any name by which a species or other concept is known that is not the official scientific name.
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The Indomalaya ecozone is one of the eight ecozones that cover the planet's land surface. It extends across most of South and Southeast Asia and into the southern parts of East Asia.
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The Australasian ecozone is an ecological region that is coincident, but not synonymous (by some definitions), with the geographic region of Australasia. The ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of
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The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young.
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feral organism is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. Rarely will a local environment perfectly integrate the feral organism into its established ecology.
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C. livia

Binomial name
Columba livia
Gmelin, 1789

The Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae, doves and pigeons.
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In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. To enable incubation the egg is usually kept within a favourable temperature range as it nourishes and protects the growing embryo.
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For other meanings of seed, see seed (disambiguation).


SEED

General
KISA
1998

Cipher detail
Key size(s):| 128 bits

Block size(s):| 128 bits
Nested Feistel network
16

SEED
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fruit has different meanings depending on context. In botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary—together with seeds—of a flowering plant. In many species, the fruit incorporates the ripened ovary and surrounding tissues.
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Phoenicopteriformes
Fürbringer, 1888

Family: Phoenicopteridae
Bonaparte, 1831

Genus: Phoenicopterus
Linnaeus, 1758

Flamingos (
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Crop milk, also known as pigeon's milk, is a secretion from the lining of the crop of pigeons and doves with which the parents feed their young by regurgitation. Similar crop milk is also produced by flamingos.
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A crop is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion that is found in many animals, including gastropods, earthworms[1], leeches[2], insects, and birds.
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Raphus
Brisson, 1760

Species: R. cucullatus

Binomial name
Raphus cucullatus
(Linnaeus, 1758)


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Pteroclidiformes

Family: Pteroclididae
Bonaparte, 1831

Genera

Pterocles
Syrrhaptes


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Psittaciformes
Wagler, 1830

Systematics

(but see below)

Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos)
  • Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo)
  • Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos)
  • Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos)

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In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches[1].
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