glass squid

Glass squid
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Cranchiid squid juvenile found in plankton, Antarctica

Cranchiid squid juvenile found in plankton, Antarctica
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Mollusca
Class:Cephalopoda
Subclass:Coleoidea
Order:Teuthida
Suborder:Oegopsina
Family:Cranchiidae
Prosch, 1847
Genera


About 15, see text.


The family Cranchiidae comprises the approximately 60 species of glass squid, also known as cranchiid or cranch squid. Cranchiid squid occur in surface and midwater depths of open oceans around the world. They range in mantle length from 10 cm to over 3 m, in the case of the Colossal Squid. The common name, glass squid, derives from the transparent nature of most species. Cranchiid squid spend much of their lives in partially sunlit shallow waters where their transparency provides camouflage. They are characterised by a swollen body and short arms, which bear two rows of suckers or hooks. The third arm pair is often enlarged. Many species are bioluminescent organisms and possess light organs on the undersides of their eyes, used to cancel their shadow. Eye morphology varies widely, ranging from large and circular to telescopic and stalked. A large fluid-filled chamber containing ammonia solution is used to aid buoyancy. Often the only organ that is visible through the transparent tissues is a cigar-shaped digestive gland, which is the cephalopod equivalent of a mammalian liver. This is usually held in a vertical position to reduce its silhouette and a light organ is sometimes present on the lower tip to further minimise its appearance in the water.

Like most squid, the juveniles of cranchiid squid live in surface waters, descending to deeper waters as they mature. Some species live over two kilometres below sea level. The body shape of many species changes drastically between growth stages and many young examples could be confused for different species altogether.

Cranchiid squid represent no interest to commercial fisheries.

Genera

The genus listed above with an asterisk (*) is questionable and needs further study to determine if it is a valid genus or a synonym.

References

External links

Plankton are any drifting organism that inhabits the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water. It is a description of life-style rather than a genetic classification.
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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Mollusca
Linnaeus, 1758

Classes

Caudofoveata
Aplacophora
Polyplacophora
Monoplacophora
Bivalvia
Scaphopoda
Gastropoda
Cephalopoda
† Rostroconchia
† Helcionelloida
† ?Bellerophontida
The molluscs
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Cephalopoda
Cuvier, 1797

Orders

Subclass Nautiloidea
  • †Plectronocerida
  • †Ellesmerocerida
  • †Actinocerida
  • †Pseudorthocerida
  • †Endocerida
  • †Tarphycerida
  • †Oncocerida

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Coleoidea
Bather, 1888

Orders
  • †Belemnoidea
  • †Aulacocerida
  • †Belemnitida

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For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation).


Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID) are very sensitive magnetometers used to measure extremely small magnetic fields, based on superconducting loops
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Oegopsina
Orbigny, 1845

Families

See text.
Synonyms
  • Decapoda
    Leach, 1817
Oegopsina is a suborder of the squid order, Teuthida, in the Cephalopod Class.
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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1810s  1820s  1830s  - 1840s -  1850s  1860s  1870s
1844 1845 1846 - 1847 - 1848 1849 1850

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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genus (plural: genera) is part of the Latinized name for an organism. It is a name which reflects the classification of the organism by grouping it with other closely similar organisms.
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The mantle is an organ found in mollusks. It is the dorsal body wall covering the main body, or visceral mass. In many species, the epidermis of this organ secretes calcium carbonate to create a shell.
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Transparency is the property of allowing the transmission of light through a material. It is the noun form of the word transparent (for example, glass is usually transparent.
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Camouflage, also known as cryptic coloration or concealing coloration, allows an otherwise visible organism or object to remain indiscernible from the surrounding environment. Examples include a tiger's stripes and the battledress of a modern soldier.
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Sucker may refer to:
  • Sucker, also called a lollipop, a type of confectionery consisting mainly of hardened, flavoured sucrose with corn syrup mounted on a stick and intended for sucking or licking

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Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy.
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Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of the planet as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers.
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In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i.e., a liquid or a gas) in which it is fully, or partially immersed, due to the pressure difference of the fluid between the top and bottom of the object.
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organ (Latin: organum, "instrument, tool") is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. Usually there is a main tissue and sporadic tissues. The main tissue is the one that is unique for the specific organ.
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Digestive may refer to:
  • Digestion, biological process of metabolism
  • Digestive biscuit, a British semi-sweet biscuit
  • Digestif, small beverage at the end of a meal

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gland is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
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Cephalopoda
Cuvier, 1797

Orders

Subclass Nautiloidea
  • †Plectronocerida
  • †Ellesmerocerida
  • †Actinocerida
  • †Pseudorthocerida
  • †Endocerida
  • †Tarphycerida
  • †Oncocerida

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Mammalia
Linnaeus, 1758

Subclasses & Infraclasses
  • Subclass †Allotheria*
  • Subclass Prototheria
  • Subclass Theria

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liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, and detoxification.
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A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. Generally, a fishery exists for the purpose of providing human food, although other aims are possible (such as sport or recreational
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Cranchiinae
Pfeffer, 1912

Genera

Cranchia
Drechselia
Leachia
Liocranchia

Cranchiinae is a subfamily containing four genera of glass squids.
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Cranchia
Leach, 1817

Species: C. scabra

Binomial name
Cranchia scabra
Leach, 1817

Cranchia scabra
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Drechselia
Joubin, 1931

Species: D. danae

Binomial name
Drechselia danae
Joubin, 1931

Drechselia danae
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Leachia
Lesueur, 1821

Species

Leachia cyclura
Leachia ellipsoptera
Leachia lemur
Leachia atlantica
Leachia pacifica
Leachia rynchophorus

Leachia
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