GNOME



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A gnome (or "Nisse") hiding behind a toadstool.


A gnome is a mythical creature characterized by its extremely small size and subterranean free lifestyle.

The word gnome is derived from the New Latin gnomus. It is often claimed to descend from the Greek gnosis, "knowledge", but more likely comes from genomos "earth-dweller", in which case the omission of e is, as the OED calls it, a blunder. It is also possible that Paracelsus simply made the word up.

Paracelsus includes gnomes in his list of elementals, as earth elementals. He describes them as two spans high, and very taciturn.[1]

In Folklore

Often featured in Germanic fairy tales, including those by the Brothers Grimm,[2] the gnome often resembles a gnarled old man, living deep underground, who guards buried treasure.[3] Because of this, Swiss bankers are sometimes disparagingly referred to as the Gnomes of Zürich. Gnomes feature in the legends of many of central, northern and eastern European lands by other names: a kaukis is a Prussian gnome, tomten in Sweden, and barbegazi are gnome-like creatures with big feet in the traditions of France and Switzerland. In Iceland, gnomes (vættir) are so respected that roads are re-routed around areas said to be inhabited by them.[4] Some confusion arises as the gnome is one of many similar but subtly different creatures in European folklore; mythical creatures such as goblins and dwarves are often represented as gnomes, and vice versa.

Individual gnomes are not very often detailed or featured as characters in stories, but in Germanic folklore, Rübezahl, the lord over the underworld, was sometimes referred to as a mountain gnome.[5] According to some traditions, the gnome king is called Gob.

Names of gnomes in different parts of the world

These are the names by which gnomes are commonly designated in different parts of Europe:

Modern usage

Fantasy authors will sometimes employ gnomes, as elementals, in their fiction.[6]

Particularly noteworthy is the phonetically spelled Nome King of the Oz books. Although the Wicked Witch of the West is the most famous of Oz's villains (thanks to the popular 1939 film The Wizard of Oz), the Nome King is the closest the book series has to a main antagonist. He appears again and again to cause trouble for the Land of Oz.

In modern fantasy games such as Dungeons & Dragons[7],EverQuest[8], and World of Warcraft[9], gnomes are often included as a playable race. They are commonly portrayed as large-headed humanoids about a meter in height, displaying characteristics such as a cheery temperament, a high degree of intelligence coupled with curiosity and poor judgement, and an unusual talent when it comes to either using magic or inventing and building technology, depending on the setting. These attributes not found in traditional stories about gnomes largely originated with the playable gnomes in Dungeons and Dragons, as well as the tinker gnome variant in the Dragonlance setting. World of Warcraft takes a similar approach as gnomes as inventors. RuneScape has gnomes as a race of both manevolent and benevolent small-sized inventors who have been known to study ogres.

In the Harry Potter series, gnomes are considered garden pests and appear to be more akin to animals than intelligent beings.

In Sydney, Australia, Gnomes are known not only for their garden based oppression, but for their cricketing prowess. A famous Sydney-based institution is The Gnomes Cricket Club. Operating within the North Shore Comp, this band of 'cricketers' have for years now closely followed many Gnomish traits - such as indulging in ale and card games, whilst simultaneously attempting to play the popular Australian game of cricket. These Gnomes are commonly known as Crisps.

Wolfmother, an Australian Rock band, included a song by the name of "Tales From The Forest Of Gnomes" in their first album. Lisa Sanchez (formerly of Pomona AllStars) released her debut album titled "A Gnome in a Bottle" in 2007. Pink Floyd also had a song titled "The Gnome" on their debut album The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, penned by Syd Barrett. These songs were all written in the hope of bringing Stoney 'Ah, the one and only' back to SUHC.

In the game , there is a garden gnome that you find at the beginning. In the 360 version, you get rewarded for carrying the gnome with you, and putting it into the rocket in White Forest Rocket Facility.

Garden gnomes

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German garden gnome
Enlarge picture
A replica of Lampy the Lamport gnome.
The first garden gnomes were made in Gräfenroda, a town known for its ceramics in Thuringia, Germany in the mid-1800s. August Heissner and Phillip Griebel[10] both made terracotta animals as decorations, and produced gnomes based on local myths as a way for people to enjoy the stories of the gnomes' willingness to help in the garden at night. The garden gnome quickly spread across Germany and into France and England, and wherever gardening was a serious hobby. Gnome manufacture spread across Germany with numerous other large and small manufacturers coming into and out of the business, each one having its own particular style of design. World War II was hard on the industry and most producers gave up then. Griebel's descendants still make them and are the last of the German producers, all others having moved production to Poland or China.

Traditional gnomes are made from a terracotta clay slurry poured into molds. The gnome is removed from the mold, allowed to dry, and then fired in a kiln until it is hard. Once cooled the gnome is painted to the level of detail desired and sent to stores to be sold to consumers. More modern gnomes are made from resins and similar materials.

Garden gnomes were first introduced to the United Kingdom in 1847 by Sir Charles Isham, when he brought 21 terracotta figures back from a trip to Germany and placed them as ornaments in the gardens of his home, Lamport Hall in Northamptonshire. Only one of the original batch of gnomes survives: Lampy, as he is known, is on display at Lamport Hall, and is insured for one million pounds.[11]

Garden gnomes have become a popular accessory in many gardens. They are often the target of pranks: people have been known to return garden gnomes "to the wild", most notably France's "Front de Liberation des Nains de Jardins" and Italy's "MALAG" (Garden Gnome Liberation Front). Some kidnapped garden gnomes have been sent on trips around the world (the travelling gnome prank; this later became the basis for Travelocity's "Roaming Gnome").

The practice of stealing garden gnomes is also sometimes referred to as "Gnome Hunting".

Gnomes are often depicted as having beards and are typically males, and usually wear red hats and are known to smoke pipes. They are made in various poses and pursuing various pastimes, such as fishing or napping.[12]

Gnomes have become controversial in serious gardening circles in the UK, and have been banned from the prestigious Chelsea Flower Show as the organisers claim that they detract from the garden designs. Gnome enthusiasts accuse the organisers of snobbery because they are popular in working class and suburban gardens.[13]

Garden Gnomes In TV

The final episode of the cult British TV comedy series Citizen Smith came as a joy to all those who loathe garden gnomes. After stealing a British Army tank from a firing range, the would-be, joke revolutionary, Smith, hides it in a friend's garage. Whilst away, one of the family, curious as the what is this vast vehicle, parked amongst the garden tools, climbs down inside and accidentally steps on the fire button. The result is that their neat garden is raked with high calibre, heavy machine gun fire, and the spectacular, slow motion, annihilation of the 30 or so garden gnomes scattered about it.

A garden gnome also appears in the Fawlty Towers episode The Builders, in which Basil Fawlty threatens to 'insert a large garden gnome' into a cowboy builder, and at the end of the episode is seen marching off carrying just such a lawn ornament in order to carry out this threat.

See also

Notes

1. ^ C.S. Lewis, The Discarded Image, p135 ISBN 0-521-47735-2
2. ^ [1]
3. ^ [2] Andrew Lang: "The Underground Workers"
4. ^ [3]
5. ^ [4] Andrew Lang, "Rubezahl"
6. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Elemental" p 313-4, ISBN 0-312-19869-8
7. ^ D20 System Reference Document, [5]
8. ^ EverQuest Online reference site (May 2007), [6]
9. ^ World of Warcraft website (May 2007), [7]
10. ^ "Bearded wonder", Telegraph.co.uk, 2007-03-16. Retrieved on 2007-09-19. 
11. ^ "Gnome Expense Spared", BBC News, 1997-12-01. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
12. ^ Gallery. Gnomeland. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
13. ^ Akbar, Arifa. "Gnomes spark row over fairies at Chelsea", The Independent, 2006-05-25. Retrieved on 2007-09-19. 
14. ^ The GNU Project. “We [...] started GNOME and Harmony, to address the problems caused by certain proprietary libraries [...] in 1997 |
15. ^ About GNOME. Retrieved on 2005-09-08.
16. ^ Richard Stallman (2000-09-05). Stallman on Qt, the GPL, KDE, and GNOME. Retrieved on 2005-09-09.
17. ^ [8]
18. ^ Pennington, Havoc (1999). GTK+ / Gnome Application Development. Retrieved on 2006-09-08.
19. ^ Desktop Development mailing list. Retrieved on 2006-05-07.
20. ^ GNOME mailing lists, rules and FAQs.
21. ^ Membership of the GNOME foundation. Retrieved on 2005-09-08.
22. ^ About GUADEC.
23. ^ Distributions that ship GNOME as their Default Desktop.
24. ^ The official GNOME LiveCD.
25. ^ Newren, Elijah (2006-04-20). Mono bindings a blessed dependency? [Was: Tomboy in 2.16]. desktop-devel mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
26. ^ GNOME Human Interface Guidelines. Retrieved on 2006-10-05.
27. ^ "Free Software UI". Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
28. ^ Linus versus GNOME.
29. ^ de Icaza, Miguel. The story of the GNOME project.
30. ^ GNOME press release for version 1.0
31. ^ Lee, Elliot (1999-10-12). "October GNOME" release now available. gnome-announce mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
32. ^ GNOME press release for version 1.2
33. ^ GNOME press release for version 1.4
34. ^ Waugh, Jeff (2002-06-27). GNOME 2.0 Desktop and Developer Platform Released!. desktop-devel mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
35. ^ GNOME press release for version 2.2
36. ^ Waugh, Jeff (2003-09-11). Announcing the GNOME 2.4.0 Desktop & Developer Platform. gnome-announce mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
37. ^ Sobala, Andrew (2004-03-31). Announcing the GNOME 2.6.0 Desktop & Developer Platform. gnome-announce mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
38. ^ GNOME press release for version 2.8
39. ^ GNOME press release for version 2.10
40. ^ GNOME press release for version 2.12
41. ^ GNOME press release for version 2.14
42. ^ Newren, Elijah (2006-09-06). Celebrating the release of GNOME 2.16!. gnome-announce mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
43. ^ Newren, Elijah (2007-03-14). Celebrating the release of GNOME 2.18!. gnome-announce mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
44. ^ GNOME 2.20 officially released. Ars Technica (2007-09-19). Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
45. ^ GNOME stable release ftp server.
46. ^ Information about the GNOME source code repository.
47. ^ .
48. ^ Mozilla, Gnome mull united front against Longhorn. News.com. Retrieved on 2006-04-20.

References

  • Lewis, C. S.. The Discarded Image. ISBN 0-512-47735-2. 

External links

  • The Gnome Army A site dedicated to uniting garden gnomes, both emancipated or enslaved, in order to fight the worldwide Garden Rebellion. The site features "gnome bios" (including their turn ons, turn offs and guilty pleasures), "Gnome Blogs" and a "Human & Gnome Forum" which allows humans to speak directly with gnomes
  • Gnome World pictures of gnomes
  • History of garden gnomes with pictures showing how they are made





GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment)[14] is an international effort to build a complete desktop environment—the graphical user interface which sits on top of a computer operating system—entirely from free software. This goal includes creating software development frameworks, selecting application software for the desktop, and working on the programs which manage application launching, file handling, and window and task management.

GNOME is part of the GNU Project and can be used with various Unix-like operating systems, most notably GNU/Linux and Solaris.

The official pronunciation of the name is IPA: /gəˈnoʊm/, with a hard “G”, although /ˈnoʊm/ (as in the English word "gnome") is also in common usage.

Aims

The GNOME project provides two things: The GNOME desktop environment, an intuitive and attractive desktop for users, and the GNOME development platform, an extensive framework for building applications that integrate into the rest of the desktop.
 
— GNOME website[15]


The GNOME project puts heavy emphasis on simplicity, usability, and making things “just work”. The other aims of the project are:
  • Freedom—to create a desktop environment that will always have the source code available for re-use under a free software license.
  • Accessibility—ensuring the desktop can be used by anyone, regardless of technical skill or physical disability.
  • Internationalization and localization—making the desktop available in many languages. At the moment GNOME is being translated to over 100 languages.
  • Developer-friendliness—ensuring it is easy to write software that integrates smoothly with the desktop, and allow developers a free choice of programming language.
  • Organization—a regular release cycle and a disciplined community structure.
  • Support—ensuring backing from other institutions beyond the GNOME community.

Origin

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GNOME 2.13.3 (development version) using the Japanese language, with Tango Desktop Project pre-release icons.


GNOME was launched by the GNU project in August 1997 in response to licensing concerns over software used by KDE,<ref name="origin" /> a free software desktop environment that relies on the Qt widget toolkit. At the time, Qt did not use a free software license and members of the GNU project became concerned about the use of such a toolkit for building a free software desktop and applications. Two projects were started: the Harmony toolkit, to create a free replacement for the Qt libraries, and GNOME to create a new desktop without Qt and built entirely on top of free software.[16] The initial project leaders for GNOME were Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena.

In place of the Qt toolkit, GTK+ was chosen as the base of the GNOME desktop. GTK+ uses the Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a free software license that allows software linking to it, such as applications written for GNOME, to use a much wider set of licenses, including proprietary software licenses.[17] The GNOME desktop itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, and the GPL for applications that are part of the GNOME project itself. While Qt is dual-licensed under both the QPL and the GPL, the freedom to link proprietary software with GTK+ at no charge makes it differ from Qt.

The name “GNOME” was proposed as an acronym of GNU Network Object Model Environment by Elliot Lee, one of the authors of ORBit and the Object Activation Framework. It refers to GNOME’s original intention of creating a distributed object framework similar to Microsoft’s OLE.[18] This no longer reflects the core vision of the GNOME project, and the full expansion of the name is now considered obsolete. As such, some members of the project advocate dropping the acronym and re-naming “GNOME” to “Gnome”.[19]

Project structure

As with most free software projects, the GNOME project is loosely managed. Discussion chiefly occurs on a number of public mailing lists.[20]

In August 2000 the GNOME Foundation was set up to deal with administrative tasks, press interest and to act as a contact point for companies interested in developing GNOME software. While not directly involved in technical decisions, the Foundation does coordinate releases and decide which projects will be part of GNOME. Membership is open to anyone who has made a non-trivial contribution to the project.[21] Members of the Foundation elect a board of directors every November, and candidates for the positions must be members themselves.

Developers and users of GNOME gather at an annual meeting known as GUADEC in order to discuss the current state of the project and its future direction.[22]

Platforms

Originally designed for GNU/Linux, GNOME now runs on most Unix-like systems and in particular has been adopted by Sun Microsystems as part of Java Desktop System, replacing the Common Desktop Environment on their Solaris platform. It is the default desktop environment for many modern desktop GNU/Linux distributions, including Debian, Fedora and Ubuntu. A list of Linux distributions that include GNOME is maintained on the GNOME website.[23]

An official GNOME LiveCD, which allows a computer to boot directly from a Compact Disc without removing or changing existing operating systems, is available for download from the GNOME website.[24]

Many GNOME components have been ported to Cygwin, allowing GNOME applications to run on Microsoft Windows.

Architecture

GNOME is built from a large number of different projects. A few of the major ones are listed below:
  • Bonobo – a compound document technology.
  • GConf – for storing application settings.
  • GNOME VFS – a virtual file system.
  • GNOME Keyring – for storing encryption keys and security information.
  • GNOME Translation Project – translate documentation and applications into different languages.
  • GTK+ – a widget toolkit used for constructing graphical applications. The use of GTK+ as the base widget toolkit allows GNOME to benefit from certain features such as theming (the ability to change the look of an application) and smooth anti-aliased graphics. Sub-projects of GTK+ provide object oriented programming support (GObjects), extensive support of international character sets and text layout (Pango) and accessibility (ATK). GTK+ reduces the amount of work required to port GNOME applications to other platforms such as Windows and Mac OS X.
  • Human interface guidelines (HIG) – research and documentation on building easy-to-use GNOME applications.
  • LibXML – an XML library.
  • ORBit – a CORBA ORB for software componentry.
A number of language bindings are available allowing applications to be written in a variety of programming languages, such as C++ (gtkmm), Java (Java-GNOME), Ruby (ruby-gnome2), C# (Gtk#), Python (PyGTK), Perl (gtk2-perl) and many others. The only languages currently used in applications that are part of an official GNOME desktop release are C, C# and Python.[25]

Look and feel

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GNOME customized to look like Mac OS X Leopard
GNOME is designed around the traditional computing desktop metaphor. Its handling of windows, applications and files is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In its default configuration, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations; open windows may be accessed by a taskbar along the bottom of the screen and the top-right corner features a notification area for programs to display notices while running in the background. However these features can be moved to almost anywhere the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether.

The appearance of GNOME can be changed by the use of themes, which are sets consisting of an icon set, window manager border and GTK+ theme engine and parameters. Popular GTK+ themes include Bluecurve and Clearlooks (the current default theme).

GNOME puts emphasis on being easy for everyone to use. The HIG helps guide developers in producing applications which look and behave similarly, in order to provide a cohesive GNOME interface.

Usability

Since GNOME v2.0, a key focus of the project has been usability. As a part of this, the GNOME Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) were created, which is an extensive guide for creating quality, consistent and usable GUI programs, covering everything from GUI design to recommended pixel-based layout of widgets.

From the GNOME HIG introduction:[26]

This document tells you how to create applications that look right, behave properly, and fit into the GNOME user interface as a whole. It is written for interface designers, graphic artists and software developers who will be creating software for the GNOME environment. Both specific advice on making effective use of interface elements, and the philosophy and general design principles behind the GNOME interface are covered.


During the v2.0 rewrite, many settings were deemed to be of little or no value to the majority of users and were removed. For instance, the preferences section of the Panel were reduced from a dialog of six tabs to one with two tabs. Havoc Pennington summarized the usability work in his 2002 essay "Free Software UI", emphasizing the idea, that all preferences have a cost, and it's better to "unbreak the software" than to add a UI preference to do that:[27]

A traditional free software application is configurable so that it has the union of all features anyone's ever seen in any equivalent application on any other historical platform. Or even configurable to be the union of all applications that anyone's ever seen on any historical platform (Emacs *cough*). Does this hurt anything? Yes it does. It turns out that preferences have a cost. Of course, some preferences also have important benefits - and can be crucial interface features. But each one has a price, and you have to carefully consider its value. Many users and developers don't understand this, and end up with a lot of cost and little value for their preferences dollar. [...] The annoying problem here is that sometimes you have to temporarily cause regressions in order to get things fixed. For GNOME 2 for example, we wanted to fix the window list (task bar) applet; under GNOME 1.4, it has to be manually sized via preferences. We wanted it to Just Work. But it took a while to make it Just Work and we were flamed regularly during its period of brokenness, because we didn't get it quite right. Most of those flames demanded re-adding all the manual sizing preferences. But that would have been wrong. (Now that the applet is mostly working, it may even make sense to add a "maximum size" preference as a useful feature.)


This less-is-more design methodology is not without detractors, one of them being Linus Torvalds, creator of the Linux kernel, who commented in a usability-related discussion on the GNOME mailing list:[28]

I don't use Gnome, because in striving to be simple, it has long since reached the point where it simply doesn't do what I need it to do.

Freedesktop.org and GNOME

freedesktop.org is a project to assist interoperability and shared technology between the different X Window desktops such as GNOME, KDE or Xfce. Although it is not a formal standards organization, freedesktop.org defines certain basic features of an X Desktop, including drag and drop between applications, window manager specifications, menu layouts, recent files lists, copy and pasting between applications and a shared MIME type database, among other things. Following freedesktop.org specifications allows GNOME applications to appear more integrated into other desktops (and vice versa), and encourages cooperation as well as competition.

Examples of technologies originated at freedesktop.org which now form part of GNOME’s core technology set include:
  • Cairo – a sophisticated 2D vector graphics library.
  • D-Bus – interprocess communication system.
  • GStreamer – a multimedia framework.
  • HAL – a specification and an implementation of a hardware abstraction layer.
  • Poppler – a PDF rendering library.
  • Tango Desktop Project – which aims to provide a common visual standard across different platforms.
These initiatives aim to allow users and developers to choose the technologies and applications they like regardless of which desktop environment they use.

Applications

Enlarge picture
GNOME screenshot showing gedit (text editor), Nautilus (file manager), Epiphany (browser), Gaim (IM client), gnome-terminal (terminal emulator) and Totem (media player)


Along with those applications bundled with the desktop, a large number of other applications have been developed for use in GNOME. See List of GNOME applications for a more complete list.

The following selection of applications typically supplied as part of a GNOME release: The following is a selection of applications that use technology from the GNOME project and are likely to be used on an average GNOME desktop:

Releases

Each of the parts making up the GNOME project has its own version number and release schedule. However, individual module maintainers coordinate their efforts to create a full GNOME stable release on a roughly six-month schedule.

Stable Releases

The releases listed in the table below are classed as stable.

Version Date Information
August 1997[29]GNOME development announced
1.0March 1999 [30]First major GNOME release
1.0.53October 1999 [31]"October"
1.2May 2000 [32]"Bongo"
1.4April 2001 [33]"Tranquility"
2.0June 2002 [34]Major upgrade based on GTK2. Introduction of the Human Interface Guidelines.
2.2February 2003 [35]Multimedia and file manager improvements.
2.4September 2003 [36]"Temujin": Epiphany, accessibility support.
2.6March 2004 [37]Nautilus changes to a spatial file manager, and a new GTK+ file dialog is introduced. A short-lived fork of GNOME, GoneME, is created as a response to the changes in this version.
2.8September 2004 [38]Improved removable device support, adds Evolution.
2.10March 2005 [39]Lower memory requirements and performance improvements. Adds: new panel applets (modem control, drive mounter and trashcan); and the Totem and Sound Juicer applications
2.12September 2005 [40]Nautilus improvements; improvements in cut/paste between applications and freedesktop.org integration. Adds: Evince PDF viewer; New default theme: Clearlooks; menu editor; keyring manager and admin tools. Based on GTK+ 2.8 with Cairo support.
2.14March 2006 [41]Performance improvements (over 100% in some cases); usability improvements in user preferences; GStreamer 0.10 multimedia framework. Adds: Ekiga video conferencing application; Deskbar search tool; Pessulus lockdown editor; Fast user switching; Sabayon system administration tool.
2.16September 2006 [42]Performance improvements. Adds: Tomboy notetaking application; Baobab disk usage analyser; Orca screen reader; GNOME Power Manager (improving laptop battery life); improvements to Totem, Nautilus; compositing support for Metacity; new icon theme. Based on GTK+ 2.10 with new print dialog.
2.18March 2007 [43]Performance improvements. Adds: Seahorse GPG security application, allowing encryption of emails and local files; Baobab disk usage analyser improved to support ring chart view; Orca screen reader; improvements to Evince, Epiphany and GNOME Power Manager, Volume control; two new games, GNOME Sudoku and glchess. MP3 and AAC audio encoding.
2.20September 2007 [44]Tenth anniversary release. Evolution backup functionality; improvements in Epiphany, EOG, GNOME Power Manager; password keyring management in Seahorse. Adds: PDF forms editing in Evince; integrated search in the file manager dialogs; automatic multimedia codec installer.

Upcoming releases

Version Date Information
2.22March 2008Ekiga 3.0 with a new user interface, and general fixing and upgrades


View GNOME's RoadMap

Source code

GNOME releases are made to the ftp.gnome.org FTP server[45] in the form of source code with configure scripts, which are compiled by operating system vendors and integrated with the rest of their systems before distribution. Most vendors use only stable and tested versions of GNOME, and provide it in the form of easily installed, pre-compiled packages. The source code of every stable and development version of GNOME is stored in the GNOME Subversion source code repository.[46]

A number of build-scripts (such as JHBuild or GARNOME) are available to help automate the process of compiling the source code.

Future developments

There are many sub-projects under the umbrella of the GNOME project, and not all of them are currently included in GNOME releases. Some are considered purely experimental concepts, or for testing ideas that will one day migrate into stable GNOME applications; others are code that is being polished for direct inclusion. Some examples include:
  • Project Soylent – making “people” and their interactions first-class objects within the GNOME framework.[47]
  • Project Ridley – to consolidate several small undermaintained libraries into GTK+, such as libgnome and libgnomeprint.
  • The use of the Mozilla project’s XUL on the GNOME desktop.[48]

See also

References

<references />

External links

Gnome usually refers to a gnome, one of a mythical race of small people, or to:
  • Gnome (Dungeons & Dragons) — a race in Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game

..... Click the link for more information.
Subterranean refers to something below ground, under the Earth's surface or underground.

Subterranean may also refer to:
  • Subterranean (album), an album by Swedish metal band In Flames
  • Subterranean (TV series), a MTV2 television series

..... Click the link for more information.
New Latin}}}
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
ISO 639-3: lat New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, used approximately in the period 1600–1900.
..... Click the link for more information.
Greek}}} 
Writing system: Greek alphabet 
Official status
Official language of:  Greece
 Cyprus
 European Union
recognised as minority language in parts of:
 European Union
 Italy
 Turkey
Regulated by:
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The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most comprehensive dictionary of the English language.
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Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland – 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. Born Phillip von Hohenheim, he later took up the name Philippus Theophrastus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim
..... Click the link for more information.
elemental is a mythological being first appearing in the alchemical works of Paracelsus. Traditionally, there are four types: gnomes, earth elementals; undines, water elementals; sylphs, air elementals; and salamanders, fire elementals.
..... Click the link for more information.
Span is the width of a human hand, from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the pinky finger. See also: English unit
1 span
= 9 inches
= 0.2286 m


In Slavic languages, the analogue of span is pyad (
..... Click the link for more information.
fairy tale or fairy story is a fictional story that usually features folkloric characters (such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, witches, giants, and talking animals) and enchantments, often involving a far-fetched sequence of events.
..... Click the link for more information.
For information about the other uses of the name, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation).

The Grimm Brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics who were best known for publishing collections of folk tales and fairy tales,[1]
..... Click the link for more information.
Banking in Switzerland is characterized by stability, privacy and protection of clients' assets and information. The country's tradition of bank secrecy, which dates to the Middle Ages, was first codified in a 1934 law.
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Gnomes of Zürich is a disparaging term for Swiss bankers. Swiss bankers are popularly associated with extremely secretive policies, while gnomes in fairy tales live underground, in secret, counting their riches. Zürich is the commercial center of Switzerland.
..... Click the link for more information.
Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Physically and geologically, Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea,
..... Click the link for more information.
Prussia (German: [1]; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Latvian: Prūsija
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This article relies largely or entirely upon a .
Please help [ improve this article] by introducing appropriate of additional sources. ()
This article has been tagged since October 2007.
This article is about the mythical creature tomte.

..... Click the link for more information.
Barbegazi are mythical creatures from Swiss mythology. A variety of dwarf or gnome, a barbegazi resembles a small white-furred man with a long beard and enormous feet. They travel in the mountains that are their home by skiing with their massive feet, or using them as snowshoes.
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem
"La Marseillaise"


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Motto
Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno (Latin) (traditional)[1]
"One for all, all for one"
Anthem
"Swiss Psalm"
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Anthem
Lofsöngur

Location of  Iceland

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From the same Germanic root as wight, the Icelandic and Old Norse word vættir designates a living creature or supernatural being. At times, even the gods of Norse mythology are called vættir.
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A goblin is an evil, crabby, or mischievous creature of folklore, often described in as a grotesquely disfigured or gnome-like , that may range in height from that of a dwarf to that of a human.
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DWARF is a widely used, standardized debugging data format. DWARF was originally designed along with ELF, although it is independent of object file formats.[1] The name is a pun on "ELF" that has no official meaning but "may be an acronym for 'Debug With Attributed
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Germanic folklore is recorded folklore of the Germanic speaking peoples. It is often used as a starting point for the reconstruction of a Common Germanic mythology:
  • Dutch folklore
  • English folklore
  • German folklore
  • Scandinavian folklore
  • Scottish folklore

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Rübezahl (-German; Czech: Krakonoš; Polish: Liczyrzepa) is the mountain spirit (woodwose) of the Karkonosze (Krkonoše, Riesengebirge
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underworld is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term afterlife, referring to any place to which newly dead souls go.

See also:  and


Aztec mythology Mictlan
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Motto
"Virtus Unita Fortior"   (Latin)
"Strength United is Stronger"
Anthem
El Gran Carlemany, Mon Pare
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Motto
Eendracht maakt macht   (Dutch)
L'union fait la force"   (French)
Einigkeit macht stark
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Motto
"Jedna lasta, men' s' čini proljeće"
Anthem
Intermeco


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Brittany (Breton: Breizh pronounced /bʁejs/; French: Bretagne, pronounced ?· i
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Korrigan is a female fairy or dwarf-like spirit. Korr means dwarf and ig is a diminutive and the suffix an is an hypocoristic.

Korrigans have beautiful hair and red flashing eyes.
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