hatching

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Albrecht Dürer, Veronica, engraving 1513. Example of hatching (eg background) and cross-hatching in many darker areas (visible if you view the image at full size).
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Detail of Veronica.
Hatching (hachure in French) and cross-hatching are artistic techniques used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing (or painting or scribing) closely spaced parallel lines. (It is also used in monochromatic heraldic representations to indicate what the tincture of a "full-colour" emblazon would be.) When lines are placed at an angle to one another, it is called cross-hatching.

Hatching is especially important in essentially linear media like drawing and many forms of printmaking, like engraving, etching and woodcut. In Western art, cross-hatching developed in the Middle Ages, and especially in the old master prints of the fifteenth century. Master ES and Martin Schongauer in engraving, and Erhard Reuwich and Michael Wolgemut in woodcut were pioneers, and Albrecht Dürer perfected the techniques in both media.

Artists use the technique, varying the length, angle, closeness and other qualities of the lines, most commonly in drawing, linear painting, engraving, and ethnic art.

Technique

The main concept is that the quantity, thickness and spacing of line will affect the brightness of the overall image. By increasing quantity, thickness and closeness, a darker area will result.
An area of shading next to another area which has lines going in another direction-is often used to create contrast.
Line work can be used to represent colours, typically by using the same type of hatch to represent particular tones. For example red might be made up of lightly spaced lines, whereas green could be made of two layers of perpendicular dense lines, resulting in a realistic image.

References

Printmaking, Hatching system (heraldry)
French (français, pronounced [fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ]) is a Romance language originally spoken in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland, and today by about 300 million people around the world as either
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Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print.
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Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold or steel are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing
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Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used on other types of material).
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Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with gouges.
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An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). A date of about 1830 is usually taken as marking the end of the period whose prints are covered by this term.
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Master E. S. (c. 1420 – c. 1468), (previously known as the Master of 1466) is an unidentified German engraver, goldsmith, and printmaker of the late Gothic period. He was the first major German artist of old master prints and was greatly copied and imitated.
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Martin Schongauer (c. 1448 – February 2, 1491) was a German engraver and painter. He was the most important German printmaker before Albrecht Dürer.

His prints were circulated widely and Schongauer was known in Italy by the names, Bel Martino and
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Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold or steel are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing
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Erhard Reuwich (Dutch: Reeuwijk) was a Dutch artist, as a designer of woodcuts, and a printer, who came from Utrecht but then worked in Mainz. His dates and places of birth and death are unknown, but he was active in the 1480s.
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Michael Wolgemut (formerly spelt Wohlgemuth) (1434 – 1519), German painter and printmaker, was born and died in Nuremberg.

Life

Little is known of Wolgemut's private life.
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Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with gouges.
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Albrecht Dürer

Self-Portrait (1500) by Albrecht Dürer, oil on board, Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Birth name Albrecht Dürer
May 21 1471(1471--)
Nuremberg, Germany
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perpendicular (or orthogonal) to each other if they form congruent adjacent angles. The term may be used as a noun or adjective. Thus, referring to Figure 1, the line AB is the perpendicular to CD through the point B.
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Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print.
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hatching and tricking. Hatching, i. e. exertion of lines and dots, is the most common method to designate colours on uncoloured surfaces, like printings, seals, and coins.
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