honeysuckle

Honeysuckle

Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Dipsacales
Family:Caprifoliaceae
Genus:Lonicera
L.
Species
See text - Selected Species


Honeysuckles (genus Lonicera; syn. Caprifolium Mill.) are arching shrubs or twining vines in the family Caprifoliaceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. There are about 180 species of honeysuckle, with by far the greatest diversity in China, where over 100 species occur; by comparison, Europe and North America have only about 20 native species each. Widely known species include Lonicera periclymenum (European Honeysuckle or Woodbine), Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle, White Honeysuckle, or Chinese Honeysuckle) and Lonicera sempervirens (Coral Honeysuckle, Trumpet Honeysuckle, or Woodbine Honeysuckle). Hummingbirds are attracted to these plants.

The leaves are opposite, simple oval, and from 1–10 cm long; most are deciduous but some are evergreen. Many of the species have sweetly-scented, bell-shaped flowers that produce a sweet, edible nectar. The fruit is a red, blue or black berry containing several seeds; in most species the berries are mildly poisonous, but a few (notably Lonicera caerulea) have edible berries. The plant is eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Honeysuckles.

Cultivation and uses

Lonicera xylosteum (Fly Honeysuckle) is a common homeopathic remedy, used for asthma, breathing difficulties and syphilis. Lonicera periclymenum (European honeysuckle) is an uncommon homeopathic remedy, used for irritability with violent outbursts.

Wood cuttings from the species Lonicera tartarica, native to Eurasia, are sold as cat toys. The wood contains nepetalactone, which is the active ingredient found in catnip. Many breeds of cats react to the scent of the wood and will paw, lick or rub against it.

Honeysuckles grow best in partial sun to partial shade.

Lonicera japonica and Lonicera maackii (Amur Honeysuckle or Bush Honeysuckle) are considered invasive weeds in the United States and in New Zealand. Honeysuckle can be controlled by cutting, flaming, or burning the plant to root level and repeating on two-week increments until nutrient reserves in the roots are depleted. Honeysuckle can also be controlled through annual applications of glyphosate, or through grubbing if high labor and soil destruction are not of concern.

Honeysuckles are also eaten by some people, who remove the blossom by hand to suck at the sweet nectar in the center. They pull the inside out and suck on the blossom.

Another name for honeysuckle is woodbine; and eglantine is used in Milton's L'Allegro.

Selected species

  • Lonicera acuminata
  • Lonicera alberti
  • Lonicera albiflora – White Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera alpigena – Alpine Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera altmannii
  • Lonicera angustifolia
  • Lonicera anisocalyx
  • Lonicera arborea
  • Lonicera arizonica – Arizona Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera biflora
  • Lonicera bournei
  • Lonicera brevisepala
  • Lonicera buchananii
  • Lonicera buddleioides
  • Lonicera caerulea - Blue-berried Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera calcarata
  • Lonicera calvescens
  • Lonicera canadensis – American Fly Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera caprifolium – Perfoliate Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera carnosifolis
  • Lonicera chrysantha – Chrysantha Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera ciliosa – Orange Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera ciliosissima
  • Lonicera cinerea
  • Lonicera codonantha
  • Lonicera confusa
  • Lonicera conjugialis – Purpleflower Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera crassifolia
  • Lonicera cyanocarpa
  • Lonicera dasystyla
  • Lonicera dioica – Limber Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera elisae
  • Lonicera etrusca – Etruscan honeysuckle
  • Lonicera fargesii
  • Lonicera ferdinandii
  • Lonicera ferruginea
  • Lonicera flava – Yellow Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera fragilis
  • Lonicera fragrantissima – Winter Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera fulvotomentosa
  • Lonicera glutinosa
  • Lonicera graebneri
  • Lonicera gynochlamydea
  • Lonicera hellenica – Greek Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera hemsleyana
  • Lonicera heterophylla
  • Lonicera hildebrandiana
  • Lonicera hirsuta – Hairy Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera hispida
  • Lonicera hispidula – Pink Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera humilis
  • Lonicera hypoglauca
  • Lonicera hypoleuca
  • Lonicera implexa
  • Lonicera inconspicua
  • Lonicera inodora
  • Lonicera interrupta – Chaparral Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera involucrata – Bearberry honeysuckle
  • Lonicera japonica – Japanese Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera jilongensis
  • Lonicera kansuensis
  • Lonicera kawakamii
  • Lonicera korolkowii – Blueleaf Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera lanceolata
  • Lonicera ligustrina
  • Lonicera litangensis
  • Lonicera longiflora
  • Lonicera longituba
  • Lonicera maackii – Amur Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera macrantha
  • Lonicera macranthoides
  • Lonicera maximowiczii
  • Lonicera microphylla
  • Lonicera minuta
  • Lonicera minutifolia
  • Lonicera modesta
  • Lonicera morrowii – Morrows honeysuckle
  • Lonicera mucronata
  • Lonicera myrtillus
  • Lonicera nervosa
  • Lonicera nigra – Black-berried Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera nitida – Box or Boxleaf honeysuckle
  • Lonicera nubium
  • Lonicera nummulariifolia
  • Lonicera oblata
  • Lonicera oblongifolia – Swamp Fly Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera oiwakensis
  • Lonicera oreodoxa
  • Lonicera orientalis
  • Lonicera pampaninii
  • Lonicera periclymenum – Common (or European) honeysuckle, Woodbine
  • Lonicera pileata – Privet honeysuckle
  • Lonicera pilosa - Mexican Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera praeflorens
  • Lonicera prostrata
  • Lonicera pyrenaica
  • Lonicera reticulata – Grape Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera retusa
  • Lonicera rhytidophylla
  • Lonicera rupicola
  • Lonicera ruprechtiana – Manchurian Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera saccata
  • Lonicera schneideriana
  • Lonicera semenovii
  • Lonicera sempervirens – Trumpet Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera serreana
  • Lonicera setifera
  • Lonicera similis
  • Lonicera spinosa
  • Lonicera splendida
  • Lonicera standishii – Standishs Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera stephanocarpa
  • Lonicera subaequalis
  • Lonicera subhispida
  • Lonicera sublabiata
  • Lonicera subspicata – Southern Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera szechuanica
  • Lonicera taipeiensis
  • Lonicera tangutica
  • Lonicera tatarica – Tartarian Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera tatarinowii
  • Lonicera tomentella
  • Lonicera tragophylla
  • Lonicera tricalysioides
  • Lonicera trichogyne
  • Lonicera trichosantha
  • Lonicera trichosepala
  • Lonicera tubuliflora
  • Lonicera utahensis – Utah Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera villosa – Mountain Fly Honeysuckle
  • Lonicera virgultorum
  • Lonicera webbiana
  • Lonicera xylosteum – (European) Fly Honeysuckle, Dwarf Honeysuckle, Fly Woodbine
  • Lonicera yunnanensis

Miscellanea

  • During Victorian times, teenage girls were forbidden to bring honeysuckle home because it was thought to induce erotic dreams.
  • Honeysuckle Vines are mentioned in Jimmy Buffet's song "Tin Cup Chalice"
  • Honeysuckle is mentioned in Sammy Kershaw's song "Don't Go Near The Water"
  • Honeysuckle is mentioned as Mrs Dietrich's (Barbara Stanwyck's) perfume in "Double Indemnity"
  • The British actress Honeysuckle Weeks was named after the honeysuckle flowers which were in bloom at the time of her birth
  • In the video game series .hack//G.U., Haseo receives a weapon called the Lit Honeysuckle. In Japan, a honeysuckle represents "devoted affection", commonly referring to young fated lovers.

References

L. ciliosa

Binomial name
Lonicera ciliosa
(Pursh) Poir. ex DC.

Lonicera ciliosa (Orange Honeysuckle or Western Trumpet Honeysuckle
..... Click the link for more information.
Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
..... Click the link for more information.
Plantae
Haeckel, 1866[1]

Divisions

Green algae
  • Chlorophyta
  • Charophyta
Land plants (embryophytes)
  • Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes)

..... Click the link for more information.
Magnoliophyta

Classes

Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Liliopsida - Monocots

The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. The flowering plants and the gymnosperms comprise the two extant groups of seed plants.
..... Click the link for more information.
Magnoliopsida
Brongniart

Orders

See text.
Dicotyledons, or "dicots", is a name for a group of flowering plants whose seed typically contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons.
..... Click the link for more information.
Dipsacales
Dumortier

Families

Adoxaceae (moschatel family)
Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family)
Diervillaceae
Dipsacaceae (teasel family)
Linnaeaceae (twinflower family)
Morinaceae
Valerianaceae (valerian family)

The Dipsacales
..... Click the link for more information.
Caprifoliaceae

Genera

See text.

The Caprifoliaceae or honeysuckle family is a clade consisting of about 800 dicotyledonous flowering plants, with a nearly cosmopolitan distribution; centres of diversity are found in eastern North America
..... Click the link for more information.
Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné)

Carl von Linné, Alexander Roslin, 1775. Currently owned by and hanging at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
..... Click the link for more information.
genus (plural: genera) is part of the Latinized name for an organism. It is a name which reflects the classification of the organism by grouping it with other closely similar organisms.
..... Click the link for more information.
In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. Usage and terminology are different for zoology and botany.

Zoology

In zoological nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names that pertain to the same taxon, for example
..... Click the link for more information.
Philip Miller (1691 - December 18, 1771) was a botanist of Scottish descent.

Miller was chief gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden from 1721 until shortly before his death.
..... Click the link for more information.
A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 5-6 m (15-20 ft) tall.
..... Click the link for more information.
vine is any plant of genus Vitis (the grape plants) or, by extension, any similar climbing or trailing plant. The word, derived from Latin vīnea, referred to the grape-bearing variety.
..... Click the link for more information.
Caprifoliaceae

Genera

See text.

The Caprifoliaceae or honeysuckle family is a clade consisting of about 800 dicotyledonous flowering plants, with a nearly cosmopolitan distribution; centres of diversity are found in eastern North America
..... Click the link for more information.
Northern Hemisphere or northern hemisphere[1] is the half of a planet that is north of the equator—the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball'. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator.
..... Click the link for more information.
This page contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
China (Traditional Chinese:
..... Click the link for more information.
Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Physically and geologically, Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea,
..... Click the link for more information.


North America is a continent [1] in the Earth's northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southeast by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west
..... Click the link for more information.
L. periclymenum

Binomial name
Lonicera periclymenum
L.

Lonicera periclymenum, known as Common Honeysuckle, European Honeysuckle or woodbine
..... Click the link for more information.
L. japonica

Binomial name
Lonicera japonica
Thunb.

The Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica; Suikazura
..... Click the link for more information.
L. sempervirens

Binomial name
Lonicera sempervirens
L.

Lonicera sempervirens (Trumpet Honeysuckle) is a species of honeysuckle native to the eastern United States.
..... Click the link for more information.
leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. For this purpose, a leaf is typically flat (laminar) and thin, to expose the cells containing chloroplast (chlorenchyma tissue, a type of parenchyma) to light over a broad area, and to allow light to penetrate
..... Click the link for more information.
Deciduous means "temporary" or "tending to fall off" (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally.
..... Click the link for more information.
evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves all year round. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose all their foliage for part of the year.

Leaf persistence in evergreen plants may vary from only a few months (with new leaves constantly being grown and old
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants. It is produced either by the flowers, in which it attracts pollinating animals or by or extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists providing anti-herbivore protection.
..... Click the link for more information.
fruit has different meanings depending on context. In botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary—together with seeds—of a flowering plant. In many species, the fruit incorporates the ripened ovary and surrounding tissues.
..... Click the link for more information.
berry, in common parlance refers generically to any small fruit with multiple seeds. Aggregate fruits such as the blackberry, the raspberry, and the boysenberry are also berries in this sense, but not the botanical.
..... Click the link for more information.
poisons are substances that can cause damage, illness, or death to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism.
..... Click the link for more information.
L. caerulea

Binomial name
Lonicera caerulea
L.

Lonicera caerulea (Blue-berried Honeysuckle or Sweetberry Honeysuckle
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.