isomers of butylene

There are four isomers of alkenes which have the chemical formula C4H8. All four of these hydrocarbons have four carbon atoms and one double bond in their molecules, but have different chemical structures. The IUPAC and common names, respectively, of these chemical compounds are:

IUPAC name
common name
1-butene
α-butylene
cis-2-butene
cis-β-butylene
trans-2-butene
trans-β-butylene
2-methylpropene
isobutylene


The chemical structures are shown at right. The small blue numbers in the structure images are the numbering of the atoms in the main backbone chain of the molecules. Other organic compounds have the formula C4H8, namely cyclobutane and methylcyclopropane, but are not alkenes and are not discussed here. There are also four-carbon cyclic alkenes such as cyclobutene and methylcyclopropene, but they do not have the formula C4H8 and are not discussed here.

All four of these isomers are gases at room temperature and pressure, but can be liquefied by lowering the temperature or raising the pressure on them, in a manner similar to pressurised butane. These gases are colourless, but do have distinct odours, and are highly flammable. Although not naturally present in petroleum in high percentages, they can be produced from petrochemicals or by catalytic cracking of petroleum. Although they are stable compounds, the carbon-carbon double bonds make them more reactive than similar alkanes, which are more inert compounds in various ways.

Because of the double bonds, these 4-carbon alkenes can act as monomers in the formation of polymers, as well as having other uses as petrochemical intermediates. They are used in the production of synthetic rubber. But-1-ene is a linear or normal alpha-olefin and isobutylene is a branched alpha-olefin. In a rather low percentage, but-1-ene is used as one of the comonomers, along with other alpha-olefins, in the production of high density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene. Butyl rubber is made by cationic polymerisation of isobutylene with about 2 - 7% isoprene. Isobutylene is also used for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and isooctane, both of which improve the combustion of gasoline.

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In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram).
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alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond. The simplest alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula
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A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. A chemical formula is also a short way of showing how a chemical reaction occurs.
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4, 2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 1086.5 kJmol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJmol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJmol−1

Atomic radius 70 pm
Atomic radius (calc.
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1, −1
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.20 (Pauling scale) More

Atomic radius 25 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 53 pm
Covalent radius 37 pm
Van der Waals radius 120 pm
Miscellaneous

Thermal conductivity (300 K) 180.
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hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. With relation to chemical terminology, aromatic hydrocarbons or arenes, alkanes, alkenes and alkyne-based compounds composed entirely of carbon or hydrogen are referred to as "Pure" hydrocarbons, whereas
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4, 2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 1086.5 kJmol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJmol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJmol−1

Atomic radius 70 pm
Atomic radius (calc.
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atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning "indivisible") is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element.
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Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or between atoms and other covalent bonds.
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molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by strong chemical bonds.[1][2] In organic chemistry and biochemistry, the term molecule
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Chemical structure refers to both molecular geometry and to electronic structure. Molecular geometry refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together.
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The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (IPA: [aɪ ju pæk]) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry.
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Cyclobutane, C4H8, with a molecular mass of 56.107g/mol, is a four carbon alkane in which all the carbon atoms are arranged cyclically, hence cyclobutane. Cyclobutane is a gas and commercially available as a liquefied gas.
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Methylcyclopropane (C4H8) is the alkyl cycloalkane compound of methane and cyclopropane.

Usage

It is used as functional group in tertiary amines.
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Cyclobutene is a cycloalkene with chemical formula C4H6 and CAS number 822-35-5. It is used in chemical industry as a monomer for synthesis of some polymers and for a range of chemical syntheses.
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Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape. Compared to the solid and liquid states of matter a gas has lower density and a lower viscosity.
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trillion fold).]]

Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold; something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature. Temperature is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
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Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area applied on a surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface.

Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.
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Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. Butane is also used as a collective term for n
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Inflammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. Materials that will ignite at temperatures commonly encountered are considered inflammable, with various specific definitions giving a temperature requirement.
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Petroleum (Latin Petroleum derived from Greek πέτρα (Latin petra) - rock + έλαιον (Latin oleum) - oil) or crude oil
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Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. (Etymologically, the name is incorrect, as the Greek root petro- means "rock"; the correct term is oleochemicals, from the Greek root oleo-, meaning "oil".
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cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e.g. light hydrocarbons) by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
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Petroleum (Latin Petroleum derived from Greek πέτρα (Latin petra) - rock + έλαιον (Latin oleum) - oil) or crude oil
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Alkanes, also known as Paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i.e. hydrocarbons), where each of these atoms are linked together exclusively by single bonds (i.e. they are saturated compounds) without any cyclic structure (i.
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A monomer (from Greek mono "one" and meros "part") is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer.

Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series.
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polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. The word is derived from the Greek, πολυ, polu, "many"; and μέρος, meros,
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Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. (Etymologically, the name is incorrect, as the Greek root petro- means "rock"; the correct term is oleochemicals, from the Greek root oleo-, meaning "oil".
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Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. An elastomer is a material with the mechanical (or material) property that it can undergo much more elastic deformation under stress than most materials and still return to its previous
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