Jewellery

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Amber jewellery in the form of pendants


Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from jewels, precious metals or other substance.

The word jewellery is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicised from the Old French "jouel" in around the 13th century.[1] Further tracing leads back to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. Jewellery is one of the oldest forms of body adornment; recently found 100,000 year-old Nassarius shells that were made into beads are thought to be the oldest known jewellery.[2]

Although in earlier times jewellery was created for more practical uses, such as wealth storage and pinning clothes together, in recent times it has been used almost exclusively for decoration. The first pieces of jewellery were made from natural materials, such as bone, animal teeth, shell, wood, and carved stone. Jewellery was often made for people of high importance to show their status and, in many cases, they were buried with it.

Jewellery is made out of almost every material known and has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings and many more types of jewellery. While high-quality is made with gemstones and precious metals, there ia also a growing demand for Art jewelry where design and creativity is prized above material value. In addition there is the less-costly costume jewellery is made from less-valuable materials and is mass-produced. New variations include wire sculpture (wrap) jewellery, using anything from base metal wire with rock tumbled stone to precious metals and precious gemstones.

Form and function

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Kenyan man wearing tribal beads.
Jewellery has been used for a number of reasons:
  • Currency, wealth display and storage,
  • Functional use (such as clasps, pins, and buckles)
  • Symbolism (to show membership or status)
  • Protection (in the form of amulets and magical wards),[3]
  • Artistic display
Most cultures have at some point had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures move wedding dowries in the form of jewellery, or create jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good; an example being the use of slave beads.

Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.[4]

Jewellery can also be symbolic of group membership, as in the case of the Christian crucifix or Jewish Star of David, or of status, as in the case of chains of office, or the Western practice of married people wearing a wedding ring.

Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures; these may take the form of symbols (such as the ankh), stones, plants, animals, body parts (such as the Khamsa), or glyphs (such as stylized versions of the Throne Verse in Islamic art).[5]

Although artistic display has clearly been a function of jewellery from the very beginning, the other roles described above tended to take primacy. It was only in the late 19th century, with the work of such masters as Peter Carl Fabergé and René Lalique, that art began to take primacy over function and wealth. This trend has continued into modern times, expanded upon by artists such as Robert Lee Morris and Ed Levin.

Materials and methods

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Anticlastic forged sterling bracelet.
In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery -- bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, or silver. Most American and European gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity (41.7% pure gold), (though in England the number is 9K (37.5% pure gold) and is typically found up to 18K (75% pure gold). Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K (91.6% pure gold), and 24 K (99.9% pure gold) being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Platinum alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95.0% pure). The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver.

Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay; polymer clay; and even plastics. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will cause an English Assay office (the building which gives English jewellery its 'stamp of approval, the Hallmark) to destroy the piece.

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Contemporary bead embroidery design.
Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, and belts. Beads may be large or small, the smallest type of beads used are known as seed beads, these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewellery. Another use of seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making.

Advanced glass and glass beadmaking techniques by Murano and Venetian glassmasters developed crystalline glass, enameled glass (smalto), glass with threads of gold (goldstone), multicoloured glass (millefiori), milk-glass (lattimo) and imitation gemstones made of glass. As early as the 13th century, Murano glass and Murano beads were popular.

Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving, and "cold-joining" (using adhesives, staples, and rivets to assemble parts).[6]

Diamonds

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A selection of diamonds.
Main article: Diamond
Diamonds, long considered the most prized of gemstones, were first mined in India.[7] Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas;[8] In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production.[9][10]

The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g). Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.

Other gemstones

Main article: Gemstone
Although diamonds are considered the most prized of all gemstones, many other precious stones are used for jewellery. Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, an example is the cubic zirconia, used in place of the diamond.[11]

Metal finishes

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Bangle with a high-polish finish.
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Bangle with a hammered finish.
For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery there are many different techniques to create different finishes. The most common however are: high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is by far the most common and gives the metal the highly-reflective and shiny look. Satin, or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery and is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look, and are created by brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving 'brush strokes'. Hammered finishes are typically created by using a soft, rounded hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture.

Impact on society

Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, for instance, only certain ranks could wear rings;[12] later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery; again based on rank. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role; for example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered "effeminate" in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularize wedding rings for men — which caught on — as well as engagement rings for men - which did not, going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had Medieval roots. By the mid 1940s, 85% of weddings in the U.S. featured a double-ring ceremony, up from 15% in the 1920s.[13] Religion has also played a role: Islam, for instance, considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo,[14] and many religions have edicts against excessive display.[15]

History

The history of jewellery is a long one, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked.

Early history

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The Nassarius beads thought to be the oldest form of jewellery.
The first signs of jewellery came from the Cro-Magnons, ancestors of Homo sapiens, around 40,000 years ago. The Cro-Magnons originally migrated from the Middle East to settle in Europe and replace the Neanderthals as the dominant species. The jewellery pieces they made were crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew, or pieces of carved bone used to secure clothing together. In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces. In southern Russia, carved bracelets made of mammoth tusk have been found. Most commonly, these have been found as grave-goods. Around 7,000 years ago, the first sign of copper jewellery was seen.[4]

Africa

Egypt

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Amulet pendant, 254 BCE. Gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise, carnelian, 14 cm wide.
The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,000-5,000 years ago.[17] The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. Predynastic Egypt had already acquired much gold; although the Egyptians acquired gold from the eastern deserts of Africa and from Nubia, in later years they captured it in the spoils of war or acquired it as tributes from other nations.

Jewellery in Egypt soon began to symbolize power and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods. Unfortunately, grave robbers have destroyed much of the archeological evidence.

In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured glass in place of precious gems. Although the Egyptians had access to gemstones, they preferred the colours they could create in glass over the natural colours of stones. For nearly each gemstone, there was a glass formulation used by the Egyptians to mimic it. The colour of the jewellery was very important, as different colours meant different things; the Book of the Dead dictated that the necklace of Isis around a mummy’s neck must be red to satisfy Isis’s need for blood, while green jewellery meant new growth for crops and fertility. Although lapis lazuli and silver had to be imported from beyond the country’s borders, most other materials for jewellery were found in or near Egypt, for example in the Red Sea, where the Egyptians mined Cleopatra's favorite gem, the emerald. Egyptian jewellery was predominantly made in large workshops attached to temples or palaces.

Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery. Also, ancient Turkish designs found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not uncommon. Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies.[17]

Europe and the Middle East

Mesopotamia

By approximately 4,000 years ago, jewellery-making had become a significant craft in the cities of Sumer and Akkad. The most significant archaeological evidence comes from the Royal Cemetery of Ur, where hundreds of burials dating 2900–2300 BC were unearthed; tombs such as that of Puabi contained a multitude of artifacts in gold, silver, and semi-precious stones, such as lapis lazuli crowns embellished with gold figurines, close-fitting collar necklaces, and jewel-headed pins. In Assyria, men and women both wore extensive amounts of jewellery, including amulets, ankle bracelets, heavy multistrand necklaces, and cylinder seals.[19]

Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly-coloured stones (chiefly agate, lapis, carnelian, and jasper). Favored shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols; they employed a wide variety of sophisticated metalworking techniques, such as cloisonne, engraving, fine granulation, and filigree.[20]

Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery:
1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 34 flat speckled chalcedony bead, [and] 35 gold fluted beads, in groups of five. 1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 39 flat speckled chalcedony beads, [with] 41 fluted beads in a group that make up the hanging device. 1 necklace with rounded lapis lazuli beads including: 28 rounded lapis lazuili beads, [and] 29 flutd beads for its clasp.[21]

Greece

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Gold earring from Mycenae, 16th century BCE.
The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1,400 BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. By 300 BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts, pearl and emeralds. Also, the first signs of cameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx, a striped brown pink and cream agate stone. Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed the designs grew in complexity different materials were soon utilized.

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Pendant with naked woman. Electrum, Rhodes, ca. 630-620 BCE.
Jewellery in Greece was hardly worn and was mostly used for public appearances or on special occasions. It was frequently given as a gift and was predominantly worn by woman to show their wealth, social status and beauty. The jewellery was often supposed to give the wearer protection from the “Evil Eye” or endowed the owner with supernatural powers, while others had a religious symbolism. Older pieces of jewellery that have been found were dedicated to the Gods. The largest production of jewellery in these times came from Northern Greece and Macedon. However, although much of the jewellery in Greece was made of gold and silver with ivory and gems, bronze and clay copies were made also.

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Ancient Greek jewellery from 300 BCE.
Jewellery makers in Ancient Greece were largely anonymous. They worked the types of jewellery into two different styles of pieces; cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal. Fewer pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered; it was made by casting the metal onto two stone or clay moulds. Then the two halves were joined together and wax and then molten metal, was placed in the centre. This technique had been in practised since the late Bronze Age. The more common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to the right thickness & then soldered together. The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery. Jewels may then be added to hollows or glass poured into special cavities on the surface.''' The Greeks took much of their designs from outer origins, such as Asia when Alexander the Great conquered part of it. In earlier designs, other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in jewellery designs was detected. However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive; numerous polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been found near Olbia, with only one example ever found anywhere else.[22]

Rome

Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts, when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artefact of early Rome was the brooch, which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. Although they used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilized wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants which could be filled with perfume.

Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the “Evil Eye” given by other people. Although woman wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring. Although they were expected to wear at least one ring, some Roman men wore a ring on every finger, while others wore none. Roman men and women wore rings with a carved stone on it that was used with wax to seal documents, an act that continued into medieval times when kings and noblemen used the same method. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the jewellery designs were absorbed by neighbouring countries and tribes.[17]

Middle Ages

Post-Roman Europe continued to develop jewellery making skills; the Celts and Merovingians in particular are noted for their jewellery, which in terms of quality matched or exceeded that of Byzantium. Clothing fasteners, amulets, and to a lesser extent signet rings are the most common artefacts known to us; a particularly striking celtic example is the Tara Brooch. The Torc was common throughout Europe as a symbol of status and power. By the 8th century, jewelled weaponry was common for men, while other jewellery (with the exception of signet rings) seems to become the domain of women. Grave goods found in a 6th-7th century burial near Chalon-sur-Saône are illustrative; the young girl was buried with: 2 silver fibulae, a necklace (with coins), bracelet, gold earings, a pair of hair-pins, comb, and buckle.[24] The Celts specialized in continuous patterns and designs; while Merovignian designs are best known for stylized animal figures.[25] They were not the only groups known for high quality work; note the Visigoth work shown here, and the numerous decorative objects found at the Anglo-Saxon Ship burial at Sutton Hoo Suffolk, England, are a particularly well-known example.[17] On the continent, cloisonné and garnet were perhaps the quintessential method and gemstone of the period.

The Eastern successor of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, continued many of the methods of the Romans, though religious themes came to predominate. Unlike the Romans, the Frankish, and the Celts, however, Byzantium used light-weight gold leaf rather than solid gold, and more emphasis was placed on stones and gems. As in the West, Byzantine jewellery was worn by wealthier females, with male jewellery apparently restricted to signet rings. Like other contemporary cultures, jewellery was commonly buried with its owner.[26]

Renaissance

The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade lead to increased availability of a wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures. Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. A fascinating example of this is the Cheapside Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London England during the Commonwealth period and not found again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite, and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka, ruby from India, Afghani lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst. Large stones were frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings.[27] Notable among merchants of the period was Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who in the 1660s brought the precursor stone of the Hope Diamond to France.

When Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned as Emperor of the French in 1804, he revived the style and grandeur of jewellery and fashion in France. Under Napoleon’s rule, jewellers introduced parures, suites of matching jewellery, such as a diamond tiara, diamond earrings, diamond rings, a diamond brooch and a diamond necklace. Both of Napoleon’s wives had beautiful sets such as these and wore them regularly. Another fashion trend resurrected by Napoleon was the cameo. Soon after his cameo decorated crown was seen, cameos were highly sought after. The period also saw the early stages of costume jewellery, with fish scale covered glass beads in place of pearls or conch shell cameos instead of stone cameos. New terms were coined to differentiate the arts: jewellers who worked in cheaper materials were called bijoutiers, while jewellers who worked with expensive materials were called joailliers; a practice which continues to this day.

Romanticism

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Mourning jewellery: Jet Brooch, 19th century.
Starting in the late 18th century, Romanticism had a profound impact on the development of western jewellery. Perhaps the most significant influences were the public’s fascination with the treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology, and the fascination with Medieval and Renaissance art. Changing social conditions and the onset of the industrial revolution also lead to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery. As a result, the use of industrial processes, cheaper alloys, and stone substitutes, lead to the development of paste or costume jewellery. Distinguished goldsmiths continued to flourish, however, as wealthier patrons sought to ensure that what they wore still stood apart from the jewellery of the masses, not only through use of precious metals and stones but also though superior artistic and technical work; one such artist was the French goldsmith Françoise Désire Fromment Meurice. A category unique to this period and quite appropriate to the philosophy of romanticism was mourning jewellery. It originated in England, where Queen Victoria was often seen wearing jet jewellery after the death of Prince Albert; and allowed the wearer to continue wearing jewellery while expressing a state of mourning at the death of a loved one.[28]

In the United states, this period saw the founding in 1837 of Tiffany & Co. by Charles Lewis Tiffany. Tiffany's put the United States on the world map in terms of jewellery, and gained fame creating dazzling commissions for people such as the wife of Abraham Lincoln; later it would gain popular notoriety as the setting of the film Breakfast at Tiffany's. In France, Pierre Cartier founded Cartier SA in 1847, while 1884 saw the founding of Bulgari in Italy. The modern production studio had been born; a step away from the former dominance of individual craftsmen and patronage.

This period also saw the first major collaboration between East and West; collaboration in Pforzheim between German and Japanese artists lead to Shakudo plaques set into Filigree frames being created by the Stoeffler firm in 1885).[29] Perhaps the grand finale – and an appropriate transition to the following period – were the masterful creations of the Russian artist Peter Carl Fabergé, working for the Imperial Russian court, whose Fabergé eggs and jewellery pieces are still considered as the epitome of the goldsmith’s art.

Art Nouveau

In the 1890s, jewellers began to explore the potentials of the growing Art Nouveau style. Very closely related were the German Jugendstil, British (and to some extent American) Arts and Crafts movement. René Lalique, working for the Paris shop of Samuel Bing, was recognized by contemporaries as a leading figure in this trend. The Darmstadt Artists' Colony and Wiener Werkstaette provided perhaps the most significant German input to the trend, while in Denmark Georg Jensen, though best known for his Silverware, also contributed significant pieces. In England, Liberty & Co and the British arts & crafts movement of Charles Robert Ashbee contributed slightly more linear but still characteristic designs. The new style moved the focus of the jeweller's art from the setting of stones to the artistic design of the piece itself; Lalique's famous dragonfly design is one of the best examples of this. Enamels played a large role in technique, while sinuous organic lines are the most recognizable design feature. The end of World War One once again changed public attitudes; and a more sober style was set to take centre-stage.[30]

Art Deco

Growing political tensions, the aftereffects of the war, and a general reaction against the perceived decadence of the turn of the century led to simpler forms, combined with more effective manufacturing for mass production of high-quality jewellery. Covering the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the style has become popularly known as Art Deco. Walter Gropius and the German Bauhaus movement, with their philosophy of "no barriers between artists and craftsmen" lead to some interesting and stylistically simplified forms. Modern materials were also introduced: plastics and aluminum were first used in jewellery, and of note are the chromed pendants of Russian born Bauhaus master Naum Slutzky. Technical mastery became as valued as the material itself; in the west, this period saw the reinvention of granulation by the German Elizabeth Treskow (although development of the re-invention has continued into the 1990s)..

Jewish jewellery

In the Jewish culture jewellery have played an important role since biblical times. We could see many references in the bible to the custom of wearing jewellery both as a decoration and as a symbol. In recent times, Jewish jewellery are wildly spread and are worn to show one's affiliation with the religion and as talismans and amulets.

The Star of David ("Magen David" in Hebrew) is the symbol most recognized with Judaism. It was used in land of Israel in Roman times, but it seems to have become associated with Judaism in particular only in later centuries. In the 17th century It became a popular practice to put Star of David on the outside of synagogues, to identify them as Jewish houses of worship; however, it is not clear why this symbol was selected for this. Today the Star of David is a universally recognized symbol of Jews. It appears on the flag of the state of Israel, and the Israeli equivalent of the Red Cross is known as "the Magen David Adom" ("Adom" is red in Hebrew). Indeed, one of the most common symbols in Jewish jewellery is the Star of David, equivalent to wearing a cross by Christians.

Another popular symbol used in Jewish jewellery is the Hamsa, also known as the "Hamesh hand". The Hamsa appears often in a stylized form, as a hand with three fingers raised, and sometimes with two thumbs arranged symmetrically. Its five fingers are said to symbolize the five books if the Torah. The symbol is used for protection and as a mean to ward of the Evil eye in amulets and charms and can also be found in various places such as home entrances and cars. It is also common to place other symbols in the middle of the Hamsa that are believed to help against the evil eye such as fish, eyes and the Star of David. The colour blue, or more specifically light blue, is also considered protective against the evil eye and we could see many Hamsas in that colour or with embedded gemstones in different shades of blue. Hamsas are often decorated with Jewish prayers of a protective fashion such as the Sh'ma Prayer, the Birkat HaBayit (Blessing for the Home), or the Tefilat HaDerech (Traveler's Prayer).

The Chai symbol, popularly worn on necklaces, is simply the Hebrew word "Chai" (literally means 'living'), consisting of the two Hebrew letters Chet and Yod. This word refers to the Living G-d. According to the gematrian system, the letters of Chai add up to 18. There have been many mystical numerological speculations about this fact and the custom to give donations and monetary gifts in multiples of 18 as a blessing for long life is very common in Jewish circles.

Other motives commonly found in Jewish jewellery are symbols from the Kabbalah (also known as kabala, cabala) such as the Merkaba, a three-dimensional Star of David, and the Tree of life. Many pieces of jewellery are decorated with parts or initials of known Jewish prayers and with 3-letters combinations, believed to represent different names of the Jewish God.

Asia

Jewellery making in Asia started in China 5,000 years ago and in the Indus Valley region later on. With roots set deep in religious designs, Asian jewellery was very decorative and used most often in ceremonies.

China

The earliest culture to begin making jewellery in Asia was the Chinese around 5,000 years ago. Chinese jewellery designs were very religion-orientated and contained many Buddhist symbols, a fact which remains to this day.
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Jade coiled serpent, Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD)
The Chinese used silver in their jewellery more often than gold, and decorated it with their favourite colour, blue. Blue kingfisher feathers were tied onto early Chinese jewellery and later, blue gems and glass were incorporated into designs. However, Chinese preferred jade over any other stone. They fashioned it using diamonds, as indicated in finds from areas in the country. The Chinese revered jade because of the human-like qualities they assigned to it, such as its hardness, durability and beauty.[4] The first jade pieces were very simple, but as time progressed, more complex design evolved. Jade rings from between the 4th and 7th centuries BCE show evidence of having been worked with a compound milling machine; hundreds of years before the first mention of such equipment in the west.[32]

In China, jewellery was worn frequently by both sexes to show their nobility and wealth. However, in later years, it was used to accentuate beauty. Woman wore highly detailed gold and silver head dresses and numerous other items, while men wore decorative hat buttons which showed rank and gold or silver rings. Woman also wore strips of gold on their foreheads, much like women in the Indus Valley. The band served a purpose like an early form of tiara and it was often decorated with precious gems. The most common piece of jewellery worn by Chinese was the earring, which was worn by both men and women. Amulets were also common too, often with a Chinese symbol or dragon. In fact, dragons, Chinese symbols and also phoenixes were frequently depicted on jewellery designs.

The Chinese often placed their jewellery in their graves; most Chinese graves found by archaeologists contain decorative jewellery.[33]

India

The Indian sub-continent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere. While Western traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5000 years.[34] One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization. By 1,500 BC the peoples of the Indus Valley were creating gold earrings and necklaces, bead necklaces and metallic bangles. Before 2,100 BC, prior to the period when metals were widely used, the largest jewellery trade in the Indus Valley region was the bead trade. Beads in the Indus Valley were made using simple techniques. First, a bead maker would need a rough stone, which would be bought from an eastern stone trader. The stone would then be placed into a hot oven where it would be heated until it turned deep red, a colour highly prized by people of the Indus Valley. The red stone would then be chipped to the right size and a hole drilled through it with primitive drills. The beads were then polished. Some beads were also painted with designs. This art form was often passed down through family; children of bead makers often learnt how to work beads from a young age.

Jewellery in the Indus Valley was worn predominantly by females, who wore numerous clay or shell bracelets on their wrists. They were often shaped like doughnuts and painted black. Over time, clay bangles were discarded for more durable ones. In India today, bangles are made out of metal or glass. Other pieces that women frequently wore were thin bands of gold that would be worn on the forehead, earrings, primitive brooches, chokers and gold rings. The people of the region were much more urbanised than the rest of the area, so the jewellery worn was of heavier make once the civilization developed. Although women wore jewellery the most, some men in the Indus Valley wore beads. Small beads were often crafted to be placed in men and women’s hair. The beads were so small they usually measured in at only one millimetre long.

Unlike many other cultures, Indus Valley jewellery was never buried with the dead. Instead, jewellery was passed down to children or family. Nobility and goldsmiths often hid their jewellery under their floorboards to avoid theft.

As time progressed, the methods for jewellery advanced, thus allowing complex jewellery to be made. Necklaces were soon adorned with gems and green stone.

Although they used other gems prior, India was the first country to mine diamonds, with some mines dating back to 296 BC. However, axes dating to 4,000 BC found in China from previous factions of the country, contain traces of diamond dust used to sharpen the blades. While China used the diamonds they found mainly for carving jade, India traded the diamonds, realising their valuable qualities. This trade almost vanished 1,000 years after Christianity grew as a religion, as Christians rejected the diamonds which were used in Indian religious amulets. Along with Arabians from the Middle East restricting the trade, India’s diamond jewellery trade lulled.

Today, many of the jewellery designs and traditions are still used and jewellery is commonplace in Indian ceremonies and weddings.[33]

Americas

Jewellery played a major role in the fate of the Americas when the Spanish established an empire to seize South American gold. Jewellery making developed in the Americas 5,000 years ago in Central and South America. Large amounts of gold was easily accessible, and the Aztecs and Mayans created numerous works in the metal. Among the Aztecs, only nobility wore gold jewellery, as it showed their rank, power and wealth. Gold jewellery was most common in the Aztec Empire and was often decorated with feathers from birds. The main purpose of Aztec jewellery was to draw attention, with richer and more powerful Aztecs wearing brighter, more expensive jewellery and clothes. Although gold was the most common and popular material used in Aztec jewellery, silver was also readily available throughout the American empires. In addition to adornment and status, the Aztecs also used jewellery in sacrifices to appease the gods. Priests also used gem encrusted daggers to perform animal and human sacrifices.[17][28]

Another ancient American civilization with expertise in jewellery making was the Maya. At the peak of their civilization, the Maya were making beautiful jewellery from jade, gold, silver, bronze and copper. Maya designs were similar to those of the Aztecs, with lavish head dresses and jewellery. The Maya also traded in precious gems. However, in earlier times, the Maya had little access to metal, so made the majority of their jewellery out of bone or stone. Merchants and nobility were the only few that wore expensive jewellery in the Maya Empire, much the same as with the Aztecs.[33]

In North America, Native Americans used shells, wood, turquoise, and soapstone, almost unavailable in South and Central America. The Native Americans utilized the properties of the stone and used it often in their jewellery, particularly in earlier periods. The turquoise was used in necklaces and to be placed in earrings. Native Americans with access to oyster shells, often located in only one location in America, traded the shells with other tribes, showing the great importance of the body adornment trade in Northern America.[38]

Although initially of interest either as a curiosity or a source of raw material, jewellery designs from the Americas has come to play a significant role in modern jewellery (see below).

Pacific

Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of relatively recent human settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood and other natural materials, and thus, has not survived. Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses, necklaces, hair pins and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces amongst island cultures. Jewellery made of flowers in Hawaii are called leis and are now commonly associated with that area and its relaxed, tourist friendly attitude.

Jewellery in the Pacific, with the exception of Australia, is worn to be a symbol of either fertility or power. Elaborate headresses are worn by many Pacific cultures and some, such as the inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, wear certain headresses once they have killed an enemy. Like the typical tribal cliché, many tribesman wear boar bones through their noses.

Island jewellery is still very much primal because of the lack of communication with outside cultures; some areas of Borneo and Papua New Guinea are yet to be explored by Western nations. However, the island nations which were flooded with Western missionaries have had drastic changes made to their jewellery designs. Missionaries saw any type of tribal jewellery as a sign of the wearer's devotion to paganism. Thus many tribal designs were lost forever in the mass conversion to Christianity.[39]

Enlarge picture
A modern opal bracelet from Australia.
Australia is now the number one supplier of opals in the world. Although Australia wasn’t colonised until later on in history, it is now famous for its vast supplies of opals. Opals had already been mined in Europe and South America for many years prior, but in the late 1800’s, the Australian opal market entered as the dominant producer of opals. Australian opals are only mined in a few select places around the country, making it one the most profitable stones in the Pacific.[40]

One of the few cultures to today still create their jewellery as they did many centuries prior is the New Zealand Māori, who create Hei-tiki. The reason the hei-tiki is worn is not apparent; it may either relate to ancestral connections, as Tiki was the first Māori, or fertility, as there is a strong connection between this and Tiki. Another suggestion from historians is that the Tiki is a product of the ancient belief of a god named Tiki, perhaps dating back to before the Māoris settled in New Zealand. Hei-tikis are traditionally carved by hand from bone (commonly whale), nephrite or bowenite; a lengthy and spiritual process. The Hei-tiki is now popular amongst tourists who can buy it from souvenir or jeweller shops.

Other than jewellery created through Māori influence, jewellery in New Zealand remains similar to other western civilizations; multi cultural and varied. This is more noticeable in New Zealand because of its high levels of non-European citizens.[39]

Modern

Enlarge picture
A necklace of white round pearls.
Modern jewellery has never been as diverse as it is in the present day. The modern jewellery movement began in the late 1940s at the end of World War II with a renewed interest in artistic and leisurely pursuits. The movement is most noted with works by Georg Jensen and other jewellery designers who advanced the concept of wearable art. The advent of new materials, such as plastics, Precious Metal Clay (PMC) and different colouring techniques, has led to increased variety in styles. Other advances, such as the development of improved pearl harvesting by people such as Kokichi Mikimoto and the development of improved quality artificial gemstones such as moissanite (a diamond simulant), has placed jewellery within the economic grasp of a much larger segment of the population. The "jewellery as art" movement, spearheaded by artisans such as Robert Lee Morris and continued by designers such as Anoush Waddington in the UK, has kept jewellery on the leading edge of artistic design. Influence from other cultural forms is also evident; one example of this is bling-bling style jewellery, popularized by hip-hop and rap artists in the early 21st century. With the world's designs more accessible to jewellers, designs have blended in aspects from many different cultures from many different periods in time.

The late 20th century saw the blending of European design with oriental techniques such as Mokume-gane. The following are noted as the primary innovations in the decades stadling the year 2000: "Mokume-gane, hydraulic die forming, anti-clastic raising, fold-forming, reactive metal anodizing, shell forms, PMC, photoetching, and [use of] CAD/CAM."[42]

Artisan jewellery continues to grow as both a hobby and a profession. With more than 17 U.S. periodicals about beading alone, resources, accessibility and a low initial cost of entry continues to expand production of hand-made adornments. Popular because of its uniqueness, artisan jewellery can be found in just about any price range. Some fine examples of artisan jewellery can be seen at The Metropolitan Museum.[43]

Body modification

Enlarge picture
Young girl from the Padaung tribe.


It can be difficult to determine where jewellery leaves off and body modification takes over, because they are different sub-categories of body art. For the most part, jewellery used in body modification is plain; the use of simple silver studs, rings and earrings predominates. In fact, common jewellery pieces such as earrings, are themselves a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the human ear.

Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as 5 years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves too. At their extent, some necks modified like this can reach 10-15 inches long; the practice has obvious health impacts, however, and has in recent years declined from cultural norm to tourist curiosity.[44] Tribes related to the Paduang, as well as other cultures throughout the world, use jewellery to stretch their earlobes, or enlarge ear piercings. In the Americas, labrets have been worn since before first contact by innu and first nations peoples of the northwest coast.[45] Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some South American peoples.

In the late 20th century, the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being incorporated into western subcultures. Many of these practices rely on a combination of body modification and decorative objects; thus keeping the distinction between these two types of decoration blurred. As with other forms of jewellery, the crossing of cultural boundaries is one of the more significant features of the artform in the early 21st century.

In many cultures, jewellery is used as a temporary body modifier, with in some cases, hooks or even objects as large as bike bars being placed into the recipient's skin. Although this procedure is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups, often acting under a trance during religious ceremonies, this practise has seeped into western culture. Many extreme-jewellery shops now cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. Most often, these hooks are used in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air. This practise is said to give an erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony whist being suspended by hooks.[44]

Jewellery Market

According to a recent KPMG study[47] the largest jewellery market is the United States with a market share of 30.8%, Japan, India and China and the Middle East each with 8 - 9% and finally Italy with 5%. They predict a dramatic change in relative market shares by 2015, where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas Europe's and Japan's marketshare will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan, and less than 3% for the biggest individual European countries: Italy and the UK.

See also

Footnotes

1. ^ jewel. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Dictionary.com website.
2. ^ 22 June 2006. Study reveals 'oldest jewellery'. BBC News.
3. ^ Kunz, PhD, DSc, George Frederick (1917). Magic of Jewels and Charms. John Lippincott Co..  URL: Magic Of jewels: Chapter VII Amulets George Frederick Kunz was gemologist for Tiffany's built the collections of banker J.P. Morgan and the American Natural History Museum in NY City. This chapter deals entirely with using jewels and gemstones in jewellery for talismanic purposes in Western Cultures. The next chapter deals with other, indegenous cultures.
4. ^ Holland, J. 1999. The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia. Kingfisher books.
5. ^ Morris, Desmond. Body Guards: Protective Amulets and Charms. Element, 1999 ISBN 1-86204-572-0
6. ^ McCreight, Tim. Jewelry: Fundamentals of Metalsmithing. Design Books International, 1997 ISBN 1-880140-29-2
7. ^ [1]
8. ^ Pliny. Natural History XXXVI, 15
9. ^ [2]
10. ^ [3]
11. ^ Nassau, K. (1980).Gems made by man. ISBN 0801967732
12. ^ Pliny the Elder. The Natural History. ed. John Bostock, H.T. Riley, Book XXXIII The Natural History of Metals Online at the Perseus Project Chapter 4. Accessed July 2006
13. ^ Howard, Vicky. "A real Man's Ring: Gender and the Invention of Tradition." Journal of Social History, Summer 2003, pp 837-856.
14. ^ Yusuf al-Qaradawi. The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam (online)
15. ^ Greenbaum, Toni. "SILVER SPEAKS: TRADITIONAL JEWELRY FROM THE MIDDLE EAST". Metalsmith, Winter2004, Vol. 24, Issue 1, p.56. Greenbaum provides the explanation for the lack of historical examples; the majority of Islamic jewellery was in the form of bridal dowries, and traditionally was not handed down from generation to generation; instead, on a woman's death it was sold at the souk and recycled or sold to passers-by. Islamic jewellery from before the 19th century is thus exceedingly rare.
16. ^ Holland, J. 1999. The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia. Kingfisher books.
17. ^ Reader's Digest Association. 1986. The last 2 million years. Reader's Digest. ISBN 0-86438-007-0
18. ^ Reader's Digest Association. 1986. The last 2 million years. Reader's Digest. ISBN 0-86438-007-0
19. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life, 155–157.
20. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life, 295–297.
21. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life, 297.
22. ^ Treister, Mikhail YU. "Polychrome Necklaces from the Late Hellenistic Period." Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 2004, Vol. 10 Issue 3/4, p199-257, 59p.
23. ^ Reader's Digest Association. 1986. The last 2 million years. Reader's Digest. ISBN 0-86438-007-0
24. ^ Duby Georges and Philippe Ariès, eds. A History of Private Life Vol 1 - From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Harvard, 1987. p 506
25. ^ Duby, throughout.
26. ^ Sherrard, P. 1972. Great Ages of Man: Byzantium. Time-Life International.
27. ^ Scarisbrick, Diana. Rings: Symbols of Wealth, Power, and Affection. New York: Abrams, 1993. ISBN 0-8109-3775-1 p77.
28. ^ Farndon, J. 2001. 1,000 Facts on Modern History. Miles Kelly Publishing.
29. ^ Ilse-Neuman, Ursula. Book review “Schmuck/Jewellery 1840-1940: Highlights from the Schmuckmuseum Pforzheim.’’ ‘’Metalsmith’’. Fall2006, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p12-13, 2p
30. ^ Constantino, Maria. Art Nouveau. Knickerbocker Press; 1999 ISBN 1-57715-074-0 as well as Ilse-Neuman 2006.
31. ^ Holland, J. 1999. The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia. Kingfisher books.
32. ^ Lu, Peter J., "Early Precision Compound Machine from Ancient China." Science, 6/11/2004, Vol. 304, Issue 5677
33. ^ Reader's Digest Association. 1983. Vanished Civilisations. Reader's Digest.
34. ^ Untracht, Oppi. Traditional Jewellery of India. New York: Abrams, 1997 ISBN 0-8109-3886-3. p15.
35. ^ Reader's Digest Association. 1983. Vanished Civilisations. Reader's Digest.
36. ^ Farndon, J. 2001. 1,000 Facts on Modern History. Miles Kelly Publishing.
37. ^ Reader's Digest Association. 1983. Vanished Civilisations. Reader's Digest.
38. ^ Josephy Jr, A.M. 1994. 500 Nations: The Illustrated History of North American Indians. Alfred A. Knopf. Inc.
39. ^ Neich, R., Pereira, F. 2004. Pacific Jewellery and Adornment. David Bateman & Auckland Museum. ISBN 1-86953-535-9.
40. ^ Dorling Kindersley Ltd. 1989. Facts and Fallacies: Stories of the Strange and Unusual. Reader's Digest. 11-13.
41. ^ Neich, R., Pereira, F. 2004. Pacific Jewellery and Adornment. David Bateman & Auckland Museum. ISBN 1-86953-535-9.
42. ^ McCrieght, Tim. "What's New?" Metalsmith Spring 2006, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p42-45, 4p
43. ^ [4]
44. ^ Packard, M. 2002. Ripley's Believe it or not: Special Edition. Scholastic Inc. 22.
45. ^ Moss, Madonna L. "George Catlin among the Nayas: Understanding the practice of labret wearing on the Northwest Coast." Ethnohistory Winter99, Vol. 46 Issue 1, p31, 35p.
46. ^ Packard, M. 2002. Ripley's Believe it or not: Special Edition. Scholastic Inc. 22.
47. ^ KPMG India. "Global Jewelry Consumption". Gems and Gemology XLIII (Summer 2007): 180. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. 

References

  • Borel, F. 1994. The Splendor of Ethnic Jewelry: from the Colette and Jean-Pierre Ghysels Collection. New York: H.N. Abrams. (ISBN 0-8109-2993-7).
  • Evans, J. 1989. A History of Jewellery 1100-1870. (ISBN 0-486-26122-0).
  • Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea 1998. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. (ISBN 0-313-29497-6).
  • Tait, H. 1986. Seven Thousand Years of Jewellery. London: British Museum Publications. (ISBN 0-7141-2034-0).

External links

Ornament may refer to:
  • Decoration
  • Christmas ornament
  • Ornament (architecture) or "ornamentation"
  • Ornamental stone
  • Ornament (music)

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Episode no. Season 3
Episode 18
Written by Andrew Lipsitz and Naren Shankar
Directed by Deran Sarafian
Original airdate April 3, 2003

Episode chronology
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Anglicisation or anglicization (see -ise vs -ize) is a process of making something English.[1]

The term most often refers to the process of altering the pronunciation or spelling of a foreign word when it is borrowed into English.
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French (français, pronounced [fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ]) is a Romance language originally spoken in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland, and today by about 300 million people around the world as either
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Latin}}} 
Official status
Official language of: Vatican City
Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
Roman Catholic Church
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
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Nassarius
Dumeril, 1806

Species
See text.

Nassarius is a genus of marine gastropod molluscs in the family Nassariidae.

Biology

Nassarius
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A natural material is any product or physical matter that comes from plants and animals used to make other objects or products. Minerals and the metals that can be extracted from them (without further modification) are also considered to belong into this category.
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Bones are rigid organs that form part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They function to move, support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals.
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Teeth (singular, tooth) are structures found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates that are used to tear, scrape, and chew food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or defense. The roots of teeth are covered by gums.
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shell is a hard, rigid outer layer, which has evolved in a very wide variety of different animals, including mollusks, sea urchins, crustaceans, turtles and tortoises, armadillos, etc.
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The WOOD callsign may refer to:
  • WOOD-TV – an NBC-affiliated television station in Grand Rapids, Michigan
  • WOOD (AM) – an AM radio station in Grand Rapids, Michigan
  • WOOD-FM - an FM radio station in Grand Rapids, Michigan




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Balanced Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs, CO]] A rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids. The Earth's lithosphere is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
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hair pin or hairpin is a long device used to hold a person's hair in place.

Hairpins made of metal, ivory, bronze, carved wood, etc. were used in ancient Assyria and Egypt for securing decorated hairstyles.
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A toe ring is a ring made out of various metals and non-metals worn on any of the toes. It is almost exclusively worn by women but is becoming more popular with men . The second toe of either foot is where they are worn most commonly.
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This list of jewellery types is a listing of most types of jewellery made.

Hair ornaments

  • Hairpins

Head ornaments

  • Body piercing jewellery
  • Crowns
  • Circlets

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GemStone can mean:
  • Gemstone, a type of mineral
  • GemStone IV (or GemStone III), an online multiplayer game by Simutronics Corporation
  • GemStone Systems, a data management company



A gemstone, gem or also called
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See also wearable art.


Art jewelry attempts to make a statement. It's created with a variety of materials not just precious metals and gems. Art Jewelry should be compared to expressions of art in other media such as glass, wood, plastics and clay.
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Costume jewelry (also called fashion jewelry, junk jewelry or fake jewelry) is jewelry that is made of less valuable materials, including base metals, glass, plastic, and synthetic stones, in place of more valuable materials such as precious metals and gems.
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Wire sculpture refers to the creation of sculpture or jewellery (sometimes called wire wrap jewellery) out of wire. The medium was experimented with by Alexander Calder.
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The history of money is a story spanning thousands of years. Related to this, Numismatics is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms.

Money itself must be a scarce good.
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amulet ( [Pliny], meaning "an object that protects a person from trouble") or a talisman (from Arabic طلاسم tilasm, ultimately from Greek telesma or from the Greek word "talein" which means "to initiate into the mysteries.
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A dowry (also known as trousseau) is either the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage or a gift of money or property by a man to or for his bride.
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Slave beads (often called Trade beads) were otherwise decorative glass beads used between the 16th and 20th century as a currency to exchange for goods, services and slaves (hence the name).
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brooch (also known in ancient times as a fibula, and not to be confused with broach) is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments. It is usually made of metal, often silver or gold but sometimes bronze or some other material.
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buckle (from Latin buccula) is a clasp used for fastening two things together, such as the ends of a belt, or for retaining the end of a strap. Before the invention of the zipper, buckles were commonly used to fasten boots and other shoes.
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Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
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crucifix (from Latin cruciare meaning "to torture") is a cross with a representation of Jesus' body, or corpus. It is a principal symbol of the Christian religion.
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Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people, based on principles and ethics embodied in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the Talmud. According to Jewish tradition, the history of Judaism begins with the Covenant between God and Abraham (ca.
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Shield of David or Magen David in Hebrew, מָגֵן דָּוִד with nikkud or מגן דוד without, academically transcribed
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livery collar or chain of office is a collar or heavy chain, usually of gold, worn as insignia of office or a mark of fealty or other association in Europe from the Middle Ages onwards.
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