Maritime climate

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World map showing the oceanic climate zones.
An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the world's continents, and in southeastern Australia. Oceanic climates are characterized by a narrower annual range of temperatures than are encountered in other places at a comparable latitude, and do not have the extremely dry summers of Mediterranean climates.

Similar climates. at least in thermal range, are also found in tropical highlands even at considerable distance from any coastline. Generally, they fall into Köppen climate classification Cfb or Cwb. The narrow range of temperatures results not from proximity to a coastline but instead to the slight thermal range of temperatures between seasons characteristic of tropical lowlands; altitudes are high enough that such places have at least one month cooler than 14° C and do not qualify for grouping in the true tropical climates. Unlike the norm in true oceanic climates, these moist highland tropical climates may have a marked winter drought, as in Mexico City. As with oceanic climates, winters are relatively warm and summers are comparatively cool, so the agricultural potential in both oceanic climates and moist tropical highland climates is practically identical.

Precipitation

Precipitation is both adequate and reliable at all times of the year in oceanic climates, except in certain tropical highland areas, which would have tropical savanna or steppe climates (with a dry season in winter) if not for the high altitude making them cooler (Koppen cwb). The Pacific Northwest and south-central Chile is often considered as having an Oceanic climate, although the dry summers in parts of this area actually fit the Mediterranean climate (Koppen "csb")..

Temperature

Overall temperature characteristics vary among oceanic climates; those at the lowest latitudes are subtropical from a thermal standpoint, but more commonly a mesothermal regime prevails, with cool, but not cold, winters and warm, but not hot, summers. Summers are also generally much cooler than in areas with a humid subtropical climate. Average temperature of warmest month must be less than 22 degrees Celsius, and that of the coldest month warmer than -3 degrees (Although American scientists prefer 0 in the coldest month). Poleward of the latter is a zone of subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc), with relatively mild winters (coldest month warmer than -3) and cool summers and a summer season (average temperature at least 10°C or 50°F) of less than four months; examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile in the Southern Hemisphere (the fact that this form of climate exists in both hemispheres ruling out the use of such terms as subarctic or boreal to denote it; even though these terms are used to refer to climates characterized by short summers, they are also synonyms for "northern" and therefore inappropriate).

Additional information

The British Isles experiences a typically maritime climate, with prevailing south-westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean. The annual average temperature range in the UK is only about 10°C. Although the west coast of Alaska experiences a maritime climate, the absence of an equally significant warm Pacific current in the upper-mid latitudes means that these regions are generally colder in winter, with more precipitation falling as snow.

All mid-latitude oceanic climates are classified as humid. Some rainshadow climates with thermal régimes similar to those of oceanic climates but steppe-like (BSk) or even desert-like (BWk) scarcity of precipitation include lowland valleys of Washington and Oregon to the east of the Cascade Range, Patagonia in southern Argentina, and, most notably, the Atacama desert in northern Chile, parts of which haven't seen rain for hundreds of years. Another example are coastal areas in southeast Western Australia.

Countries/Regions with mild maritime climate

The 0°C (32°F) isotherm (freeze line) or the -3°C (26.6°F) isotherms (persistent snow line) are the possible lines dividing the oceanic and the humid continental climates, in between which are the following regions:

Notable cities with oceanic climates

Notable cities which have oceanic climates include:

Africa

Note that the latter two locations are high-altitude locations in the tropical areas that would be in savanna (Aw) or steppe (BSHw) zones except for high altitude.

Europe

North America

Central America

Note that these locations have moist tropical highland climates.

Oceania

South America

The following have moist tropical highland climates:

Asia

Exceptions and borderline cases

San Francisco and Oporto have a temperature range characteristic of an oceanic climate but so little rainfall during summer that they must be considered part of a Mediterranean climate zone, despite their summers and winters being almost the same temperature.

Countries/Regions with subpolar oceanic climate

Some notable cities with the subpolar Cfc climate are:

Examples

Southern hemisphere

for Sydney, Australia
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temperatures in C / precipitation in mm
source: [1]
for Melbourne, Australia
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temperatures in C / precipitation in mm
source: [2]



See also

External links

Climate is the average and variations of weather over long periods of time. Climate zones can be defined using parameters such as temperature and rainfall.
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Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
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trillion fold).]]

Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold; something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature. Temperature is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
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Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. Outside the Mediterranean, this climate covers relatively small areas of the Earth, and generally occurs on the western coasts of continental landmasses, roughly between
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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist, around 1900 (with several further modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936).
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Mexico City
Ciudad de México

Skyline of Mexico City at night

Seal
Nickname: Ciudad de los palacios (City of Palaces)
Motto: Capital en movimiento
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savanna or savannah is a tropical or subtropical woodland ecosystem. Savannas are characterised by the trees being sufficiently small or widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
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A Semi-arid climate or steppe climate generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in). A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification that treats steppe climates (BS) as intermediates between the desert
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Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. There are several partially overlapping definitions but the term Pacific Northwest should not be confused with the Northwest Territory (aka the Great Northwest) or the
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Motto
Por la Razón o la Fuerza
(Spanish: "By right or might")
Anthem
Himno Nacional de Chile
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Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. Outside the Mediterranean, this climate covers relatively small areas of the Earth, and generally occurs on the western coasts of continental landmasses, roughly between
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trillion fold).]]

Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold; something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature. Temperature is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
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The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23.5 ° north and south.
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In climatology, the term mesothermal is used to refer to certain forms of climate found typically in the Earth's Temperate Zones.

The term is derived from two Greek words meaning "having a moderate amount of heat.
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The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. This climate type covers a broad category of climates, and the term "subtropical" may be a misnomer for the winter climate in the cooler areas within this
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Location of  Iceland

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Northern Hemisphere or northern hemisphere[1] is the half of a planet that is north of the equator—the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball'. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator.
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Motto
Por la Razón o la Fuerza
(Spanish: "By right or might")
Anthem
Himno Nacional de Chile
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Southern Hemisphere or southern hemisphere[1] is the half of a planet that is south of the equator—the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball'. It is also that half of the celestial sphere south of the celestial equator.
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Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. It is found on large landmasses, away from the moderating effects of an ocean, generally at latitudes from 50° to 70°N.
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Boreal may refer to:
  • Northern, from Boreas, god of the North Wind in Greek mythology
  • Boreal climate, the climate found in a region of boreal forests, and designated Dfc, Dwc or Dsc in the Köppen climate classification scheme.

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British Isles<nowiki />

The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe

Geography <nowiki/>
Location Western Europe <nowiki /> <nowiki />
Total islands 6,000+<nowiki />

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Motto
"Dieu et mon droit" [2]   (French)
"God and my right"
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"God Save the Queen" [3]
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Alaska

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Nickname(s): The Last Frontier
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Official language(s) None[1]
Spoken language(s) English 85.7%,
Native North American 5.
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Humidity is the amount of water vapor in a sample of air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at any specific temperature. Absolute humidity, relative humidity and specific humidity are different ways to express the water content in a parcel of air.
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steppe (Russian: степь - [sʲtʲepʲ], Ukrainian: степ
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desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. Deserts are defined as areas that receive an average annual precipitation of less than 250 mm (10 in). In the Köppen climate classification system, deserts are classed as (BW).
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State of Oregon

Flag of Oregon (front) Seal
Nickname(s): Beaver State
Motto(s): Alis volat propriis

Official language(s) (none)[1]

Capital Salem
Largest city Portland

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Cascade Range
The Cascades

Mount Rainier in Washington state


Country | United States, Canada
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