phonemic principle

A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. These are sometimes termed true alphabets, but other writing systems, like syllabaries, can be phonemic as well.

Languages with a good grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence include Bulgarian, Basque, Finnish, Georgian, Korean, Sanskrit, Croatian and Serbian. Many constructed languages such as Esperanto and Lojban have phonemic orthographies.

Phonetic alphabets such as International Phonetic Alphabet aim to describe pronunciation in a standard, phonemic, form. They are often used to solve ambiguities in the spelling of written language. They may also be used to write languages with no previous written form.

As dialects of the English language vary significantly, it would be difficult to create a phonemic orthography that encompassed all of them. However, it is fairly easy to create one based on a standard accent such as Received Pronunciation. This would, however, exclude certain sound differences found in other accents, such as the bad-lad split in Australian English. With time, pronunciations change and thus in order to maintain a phonemic orthography such a system would need periodic updating in order to not become out of date, as has happened to English and French.

Difference from phonetic orthographies

Phonemic orthographies are different from phonetic orthographies; whereas in a phonemic orthography, allophones will be represented by the same grapheme, a phonetic orthography would demand that the phonetically distinct allophones be written as such. To take an example from American English: the /t/ sound in the words "table" and "cat" would, in a phonemic orthography, be written with the same character; however, a phonetic orthography would make a distinction between the aspirated "t" in "table", the flap in "butter", the unaspirated "t" in "stop" and the glottalized "t" in "cat" (not all these allophones exist in all English dialects). In other words, the sound that most English speakers think of as /t/ is really a group of sounds, all pronounced slightly differently depending on where they occur in a word. A perfect phonemic orthography has one letter per group of sounds (phoneme), but has different letters where the sounds distinguish words (so "bed" is spelled different from "bet").

A phonetic orthography represents phones, the sounds humans are capable of producing, many of which will often be grouped together as a single phoneme in any given natural language, though the groupings vary across languages. English, for example, does not distinguish between aspirated and unaspirated consonants, but other languages, like Bengali and Hindi, do.

See also

writing system is a type of symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in language.

General properties

Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that one must usually understand something of the
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grapheme is the fundamental unit in written language. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, Chinese characters, numerals, punctuation marks, and all the individual symbols of any of the world's writing systems.

In a phonemic orthography, a grapheme corresponds to one phoneme.
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phoneme is the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes meaning. Phonemes are not the physical segments themselves, but abstractions of them. An example of a phoneme would be the /t/ found in words like tip,
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syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. A symbol in a syllabary typically represents an optional consonant sound followed by a vowel sound.
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Bulgarian}}} 
Official status
Official language of:  Bulgaria
 European Union
Regulated by: Institute of Bulgarian at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Институт за
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 Basque
}}} 
Official status
Official language of: Euskadi and Navarre (Spain)
Regulated by: Euskaltzaindia
Language codes
ISO 639-1: eu
ISO 639-2: baq (B)  eus (T)
ISO 639-3: eus


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Finnish ( suomi  , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91.
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Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
The Georgian alphabet (Georgian: ქართული დამწერლობა
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Hangul (한글) or Chosŏn'gŭl (조선글) [2]

ISO 15924 Hang

Note
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Sanskrit}}}  | style="padding-left: 0.5em;" | Writing system: | colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.5em;" | Devanāgarī and several other Brāhmī-based scripts  ! colspan="3" style="text-align: center; color: black; background-color: lawngreen;"|Official
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Serbian}}} 
Official status
Official language of:  Serbia

 Republic of Macedonia (in some municipalities)
Regulated by: Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Language codes
ISO 639-1: sr
ISO 639-2: scc (B)
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Esperanto}}} 
Category (sources): vocabulary from Romance and Germanic languages; phonology from Slavic languages 
Regulated by: Akademio de Esperanto
Language codes
ISO 639-1: eo
ISO 639-2: epo
ISO 639-3: epo
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Lojban (IPA /ˈloʒban/) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic.

Development began in 1987 by The Logical Language Group (LLG), who intended to realize Loglan's purposes as well as further
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International Phonetic Alphabet

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.

The International
Phonetic Alphabet
History
Nonstandard symbols
Extended IPA
Naming conventions
IPA for English The
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English}}} 
Writing system: Latin (English variant) 
Official status
Official language of: 53 countries
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: en
ISO 639-2: eng
ISO 639-3: eng  
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Received Pronunciation (RP) is a form of pronunciation of the English language which has been long perceived as uniquely prestigious amongst British accents.

The earlier mentions of the term can be found in H. C.
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Trap-bath split

The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English (including Received Pronunciation), in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African
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Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia.[1]

History

Australian English began diverging from British English shortly after the foundation of the Australian penal colony of New South Wales
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French (français, pronounced [fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ]) is a Romance language originally spoken in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland, and today by about 300 million people around the world as either
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In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. A phone is a sound that has a definite shape as a sound wave, while a phoneme is a basic group of sounds that can distinguish words (i.e.
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In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of his or
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The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar flaps is ɾ
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In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of his or
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Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound. Glottalization of vowels and voiced consonants is most often realized as creaky voice (partial closure).
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A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers.
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Bengali}}} 
Writing system: Bengali script 
Official status
Official language of:
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Hindi}}} 
Writing system: Devanagari script 
Official status
Official language of:  India
 Fiji (as Hindustani)
Regulated by: Central Hindi Directorate (only in India)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-1: hi
ISO 639-2:
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The alphabetic principle is the understanding that letters are used to represent speech sounds, or phonemes, and that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken words.
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In writing, phonetic spelling is the use of writing system with a finite character set, where each character, or sometimes character sequence, has exactly one corresponding phoneme (sound), or sometimes sequence of phonemes.
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Spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. It is one of the elements of orthography and a prescriptive element of language.
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