pinealocyte

Pinealocytes are the main cells of the pineal gland. They produce and secrete melatonin. Pinealocytes have an organelle called the synaptic ribbon; this is considered to be a specific marker for pinealocytes. Some of the enzymes of the pinealocytes include 5-HT N-acetyl transferase and 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase which are used to convert serotonin to melatonin.

Pinealocytes secrete their melatonin into capillaries via long cytoplasmic processes that resemble the axons of neurons. They also have shorter cytoplasmic processes that connect to adjacent pinealocytes via desmosomes and gap junctions.

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The pineal gland (also called the pineal body, epiphysis cerebri, or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. It is shaped like a tiny pine cone, and is located near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the
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Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle.

Many biological effects of melatonin are produced through activation of melatonin receptors,[2]
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Serotonin N-acetyl transferase is a gene involved in the conversion of serotonin to melatonin in pinealocytes.

See also

  • Acetyltransferase

External links

  • MeSH Serotonin+N-Acetyltransferase

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5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase is an enzyme involved in the conversion of serotonin to melatonin in pinealocytes.

See also

  • methyltransferase

External links

  • MeSH ASMTL+protein,+human

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Serotonin (pronounced IPA: /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnən/) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and
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capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. See capillary action for details.


Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels, measuring 5-10 μm, which connect arterioles and venules, and are
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axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma.

Anatomy


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Neurons (also known as neurones and nerve cells) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information. In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
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desmosome, also known as macula adherens (Latin: adhering spot), is a cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion. A type of junctional complex, they are localized spot-like adhesions randomly arranged on the lateral sides of plasma membranes.
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A gap junction or nexus is a junction between certain animal cell-types that allows different molecules and ions, mostly small intracellular signaling molecules (intracellular mediators), to pass freely between cells. The junction connects the cytoplasm of cells.
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Boston University (BU) is a private research university located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Although chartered by the Massachusetts Legislature in 1869, Boston University traces its roots to the establishment of the Newbury Biblical Institute in Newbury,
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University of Oklahoma, abbreviated OU, is a coeducational public research university located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma.
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Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body.[1] It is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy.[1]
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1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. Ovary 8. Testes]]

The endocrine system
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Endocrine glands are glands that secrete their product directly into the blood rather than through a duct. This group contains the glands of the Endocrine system.

External links

  • Endocrine+glands at eMedicine Dictionary

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The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus, (from Greek ὑποθαλαμος = under the thalamus) is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem.
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The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain.
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions between: the hypothalamus, a hollow, funnel-shaped part of the brain; the pituitary gland, a pea-shaped structure located below the hypothalamus; and the
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In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, "near" or "at" + -renes, "kidneys").
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis for short) is part of the endocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism.

As its name suggests, it depends upon the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the thyroid gland.
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The thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. This gland is found in the neck just below the laryngeal prominence.
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The parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck, usually located behind the thyroid gland, which produce parathyroid hormone. In rare cases the parathyroid glands are located within the thyroid glands.
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
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The testicle (from Latin testis, meaning "witness",[1] plural testes) or ballock is the male generative gland in animals. This article will concentrate on mammalian testicles unless otherwise noted.
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For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants)
An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. They are usually purple. It is often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
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The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body") (plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in mammals, involved in the production of the progestogens which are needed for the maintenance of a pregnancy.
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The pineal gland (also called the pineal body, epiphysis cerebri, or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. It is shaped like a tiny pine cone, and is located near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the
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The endocrine (i.e., hormone-producing) cells of the pancreas are grouped in the islets of Langerhans. Discovered in 1869 by the German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans, the islets of Langerhans constitute approximately 1 to 2% of the mass of the pancreas.
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