Quark

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The six flavors of quarks and their most likely decay modes. Mass decreases moving from right to left.
In particle physics, the quark (pronounced IPA: /kwɔrk/) is one of the two basic constituents of matter (the other is the lepton). Quarks make up protons and neutrons, with there being exactly three quarks within each kind of particle.

There are six different types of quark, usually known as flavors: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom. (Their names were chosen arbitrarily based on the need to name them something that could be easily remembered and used.) The strange, charm, bottom and top varieties are highly unstable and died out within a fraction of a second after the Big Bang; they can be recreated and studied by particle physicists. The up and down varieties survive in profusion, and are distinguished by (among other things) their electric charge. It is this which makes the difference when quarks clump together to form protons or neutrons: a proton is made up of two up quarks and one down quark, yielding a net charge of +1; while a neutron contains one up quark and two down quarks, yielding a net charge of 0.

Quarks are the only fundamental particles that interact through all four of the fundamental forces.

Antiparticles of quarks are called antiquarks.

Isolated quarks are never found naturally; they are almost always found in groups of two (mesons) or groups of three (baryons) called hadrons. This is a direct consequence of confinement.

Origin of the word

The word was originally coined by Murray Gell-Mann as a nonsense word rhyming with "pork".[1] Later, he found the same word in James Joyce's book Finnegans Wake, where seabirds give "three quarks", akin to three cheers (probably onomatopoeically imitating a seabird call, like "quack" for ducks, as well as making a pun on the relationship between Munster and its provincial capital, Cork) in the passage "Three quarks for Muster Mark!/Sure he has not got much of a bark/And sure any he has it's all beside the mark." Further explanation for the use of the word "quark" may be derived from the fact that, at the time, there were only three known quarks in existence.

Free quarks

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1974 discovery photograph of a possible charmed baryon, now identified as the Σc++
No search for free quarks or fractional electric charges has returned convincing evidence. The absence of free quarks has therefore been incorporated into the notion of confinement, which, it is believed, the theory of quarks must possess.

Confinement began as an experimental observation, and is expected to follow from the modern theory of strong interactions, called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Although there is no mathematical derivation of confinement in QCD, it is easy to show using lattice gauge theory.

However, it may be possible to change the confinement by creating dense or hot quark matter. These new phases of QCD matter have been predicted theoretically, and experimental searches for them have now started.

Confinement and quark properties

Main article: Color confinement
Every subatomic particle is completely described by a small set of observables such as mass m and quantum numbers, such as spin S and parity P. Usually these properties are directly determined by experiments. However, confinement makes it impossible to measure these properties of quarks. Instead, they must be inferred from measurable properties of the composite particles which are made up of quarks. Such inferences are usually most easily made for certain additive quantum numbers called flavors.

The composite particles made of quarks and antiquarks are the hadrons. These include the mesons which get their quantum numbers from a quark and an antiquark, and the baryons, which get theirs from three quarks. The quarks (and antiquarks) which impart quantum numbers to hadrons are called valence quarks. Apart from these, any hadron may contain an indefinite number of virtual quarks, antiquarks and gluons which together contribute nothing to their quantum numbers. Such virtual quarks are called sea quarks.

Flavour

Each quark is assigned a baryon number, B  =  1/3, and a vanishing lepton number L  =  0. They have fractional electric charge, Q, either Q  =  +2/3 or Q  =  −1/3. The former are called up-type quarks, the latter, down-type quarks. Each quark is assigned a weak isospin: Tz  =  +1/2 for an up-type quark and Tz  =  −1/2 for a down-type quark. Each doublet of weak isospin defines a generation of quarks. There are three generations, and hence six flavors of quarks — the up-type quark flavors are up, charm and top; the down-type quark flavors are down, strange, and bottom (each list is in the order of increasing mass).

The number of generations of quarks and leptons are equal in the standard model. The number of generations of leptons with a light neutrino is strongly constrained by experiments at the LEP in CERN and by observations of the abundance of helium in the universe. Precision measurement of the lifetime of the Z boson at LEP constrains the number of light neutrino generations to be three. Astronomical observations of helium abundance give consistent results. Results of direct searches for a fourth generation give limits on the mass of the lightest possible fourth generation quark. The most stringent limit comes from analysis of results from the Tevatron collider at Fermilab, and shows that the mass of a fourth-generation quark must be greater than 190 GeV. Additional limits on extra quark generations come from measurements of quark mixing performed by the experiments Belle and BaBar.

Each flavor defines a quantum number which is conserved under the strong interactions, but not the weak interactions. The magnitude of flavor changing in the weak interaction is encoded into a structure called the CKM matrix. This also encodes the CP violation allowed in the Standard Model. The flavor quantum numbers are described in detail in the article on flavor.

Spin

Quantum numbers corresponding to non-Abelian symmetries like rotations require more care in extraction, since they are not additive. In the quark model one builds mesons out of a quark and an antiquark, whereas baryons are built from three quarks. Since mesons are bosons (having integer spins) and baryons are fermions (having half-integer spins), the quark model implies that quarks are fermions. Further, the fact that the lightest baryons have spin-1/2 implies that each quark can have spin S  =  1/2. The spins of excited mesons and baryons are completely consistent with this assignment.

Colour

Main article: Color charge
Since quarks are fermions, the Pauli exclusion principle implies that the three valence quarks must be in an antisymmetric combination in a baryon. However, the charge Q =  2 baryon, Δ++ (which is one of four isospin Iz  =  3/2 baryons) can only be made of three u quarks with parallel spins. Since this configuration is symmetric under interchange of the quarks, it implies that there exists another internal quantum number, which would then make the combination antisymmetric. This is given the name "color", although it has nothing to do with the perception of the frequency (or wavelength) of light, which is the usual meaning of color. This quantum number is the charge involved in the gauge theory called quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

The only other colored particle is the gluon, which is the gauge boson of QCD. Like all other non-Abelian gauge theories (and unlike quantum electrodynamics) the gauge bosons interact with one another by the same force that affects the quarks.

Color is a gauged SU(3) symmetry. Quarks are placed in the fundamental representation, 3, and hence come in three colors (red, green, and blue). Gluons are placed in the adjoint representation, 8, and hence come in eight varieties.

Quark masses

Although one speaks of quark mass in the same way as the mass of any other particle, the notion of mass for quarks is complicated by the fact that quarks cannot be found free in nature. As a result, the notion of a quark mass is a theoretical construct, which makes sense only when one specifies exactly the procedure used to define it.

Current quark mass

The approximate chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics, for example, allows one to define the ratio between various (up, down and strange) quark masses through combinations of the masses of the pseudo-scalar meson octet in the quark model through chiral perturbation theory, giving
:
The fact that the up quark has mass is important, since there would be no strong CP problem if it were massless. The absolute values of the masses are currently \ determined from QCD sum rules (also called spectral function sum rules) and lattice QCD. Masses determined in this manner are called current quark masses. The connection between different definitions of the current quark masses needs the full machinery of renormalization for its specification.

Valence quark mass

Another, older, method of specifying the quark masses was to use the Gell-Mann-Nishijima mass formula in the quark model, which connect hadron masses to quark masses. The masses so determined are called constituent quark masses, and are significantly different from the current quark masses defined above. The constituent masses do not have any further dynamical meaning.

Heavy quark masses

The masses of the heavy charm and bottom quarks are obtained from the masses of hadrons containing a single heavy quark (and one light antiquark or two light quarks) and from the analysis of quarkonia. Lattice QCD computations using the heavy quark effective theory (HQET) or non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD) are currently used to determine these quark masses.

The top quark is sufficiently heavy that perturbative QCD can be used to determine its mass. Before its discovery in 1995, the best theoretical estimates of the top quark mass are obtained from global analysis of precision tests of the Standard Model. The top quark, however, is unique amongst quarks in that it decays before having a chance to hadronize. Thus, its mass can be directly measured from the resulting decay products. This can only be done at the Tevatron which is the only particle accelerator energetic enough to produce top quarks in abundance.

Properties of quarks

The following table summarizes the key properties of the six known quarks:

Generation Weak
Isospin
Flavor Name Symbol Charge
e
Mass
MeV/c2
Antiparticle Symbol
1Iz=+½Upu+?1.5 – 4.0Antiupu
1Iz=-½Downd-?4 – 8Antidownd
2S=-1Stranges-?80 – 130Antistranges
2C=1Charmc+?1150 – 1350Anticharmc
3B'=-1Bottomb-?4100 – 4400Antibottomb
3T=1Topt+?170900 ± 1800[2]Antitopt

Antiquarks

The additive quantum numbers of antiquarks are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to those of the quarks. CPT symmetry forces them to have the same spin and mass as the corresponding quark. Tests of CPT symmetry cannot be performed directly on quarks and antiquarks, due to confinement, but can be performed on hadrons. Notation of antiquarks follows that of antimatter in general: an up quark is denoted by , and an anti-up quark is denoted by .

Substructure

Some extensions of the Standard Model begin with the assumption that quarks and leptons have substructure. In other words, these models assume that the elementary particles of the Standard Model are in fact composite particles, made of some other elementary constituents. Such an assumption is open to experimental tests, and these theories are severely constrained by data. At present there is no evidence for such substructure. For more details see the article on preons.

History

The notion of quarks evolved out of a classification of hadrons developed independently in 1961 by Murray Gell-Mann and Kazuhiko Nishijima, which nowadays goes by the name of the quark model. The scheme grouped together particles with isospin and strangeness using a unitary symmetry derived from current algebra, which we today recognise as part of the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD. This is a global flavor SU(3) symmetry, which should not be confused with the gauge symmetry of QCD.

In this scheme the lightest mesons (spin-0) and baryons (spin-½) are grouped together into octets, 8, of flavor symmetry. A classification of the spin-3/2 baryons into the representation 10 yielded a prediction of a new particle, Ω, the discovery of which in 1964 led to wide acceptance of the model. The missing representation 3 was identified with quarks.

This scheme was called the eightfold way by Gell-Mann, a clever conflation of the octets of the model with the eightfold way of Buddhism. He also chose the name quark and attributed it to the sentence “Three quarks for Muster Mark” in James Joyce's Finnegans Wake [3]. The negative results of quark search experiments caused Gell-Mann to hold that quarks were mathematical fiction.

Analysis of certain properties of high energy reactions of hadrons led Richard Feynman to postulate substructures of hadrons, which he called partons (since they form part of hadrons). A scaling of deep inelastic scattering cross sections derived from current algebra by James Bjorken received an explanation in terms of partons. When Bjorken scaling was verified in an experiment in 1969, it was immediately realized that partons and quarks could be the same thing. With the proof of asymptotic freedom in QCD in 1973 by David Gross, Frank Wilczek and David Politzer the connection was firmly established.

The charm quark was postulated by Sheldon Glashow, John Iliopoulos and Luciano Maiani in 1970 to prevent unphysical flavor changes in weak decays which would otherwise occur in the standard model. The discovery in 1975 of the meson which came to be called the J/ψ led to the recognition that it was made of a charm quark and its antiquark.

The existence of a third generation of quarks was predicted by Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa in 1973 who realized that the observed violation of CP symmetry by neutral kaons could not be accommodated into the Standard Model with two generations of quarks. The bottom quark was discovered in 1977 and the top quark in 1996 at the Tevatron collider in Fermilab.

See also

References and external links

1. ^ Gribbin, John. "Richard Feynman: A Life in Science" Dutton 1997, pg 194.
2. ^ Summary of Top Mass Results - March 2007.
3. ^ [1]

Primary and secondary sources

Other references

Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them. It is also called "high energy physics"
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This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language.

See International Phonetic Alphabet for English for a more complete version and Pronunciation respelling for English for phonetic
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matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed, not counting the contribution of various energy or force-fields, which are not usually considered to be matter per se (though they may contribute to the mass of objects).
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In physics, a lepton is a particle with spin-1/2 (a fermion) that does not experience the strong interaction (that is, the strong nuclear force). The leptons form a family of elementary particles that are distinct from the other known family of fermions, the quarks.
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Proton

The quark structure of the proton.
Composition: 2 up, 1 down
Family: Fermion
Group: Quark
Interaction: Gravity, Electromagnetic, Weak, Strong
Antiparticle: Antiproton
Discovered: Ernest Rutherford (1919)
Symbol: p+
Mass: 1.
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Neutron

The quark structure of the neutron.
Composition: one up, two down
Family: Fermion
Group: Quark
Interaction: Gravity, Electromagnetic, Weak, Strong
Antiparticle: Antineutron
Discovered: James Chadwick[1]
Symbol: n
Mass: 1.
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Flavour in particle physics
 

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Up Quark
Composition: Elementary particle
Family: Fermion
Group: Quark
Generation: First
Mass: 1.5 - 4 MeV/c2
Electric charge: +2/3 e
Spin: ½

The up quark is a particle described by the Standard Model theory of physics.
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Down Quark
Composition: Elementary particle
Family: Fermion
Group: Quark
Generation: First
Mass: 4 - 8 MeV/c2
Electric charge: -1/3 e
Spin: ½

The down quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e.
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Charm Quark
Composition: Elementary particle
Family: Fermion
Group: Quark
Generation: Second
Theorized: Glashow, Iliopoulos, Maiani, 1970
Discovered: Burton Richter et al. and Samuel C. C. Ting et al., 1974
Mass: 1.
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Strange Quark
Composition: Elementary particle
Family: Fermion
Group: Quark
Generation: Second
Mass: 80 - 130 MeV/c2
Electric charge: -1/3 e
Spin: ½

The strange quark
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Top Quark
Composition: Elementary particle
Family: Fermion
Group: Quark
Generation: Third
Discovered: CDF and D0 collaborations, 1995
Symbol: t
Mass: 174.2±3.
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Bottom quark
Composition: Elementary particle
Family: Fermion
Group: Quark
Generation: Third
Discovered: Leon M. Lederman et al., 1977
Mass: 4 GeV/c2
Electric charge: -1/3 e
Spin: ½
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Big Bang is the cosmological model of the universe whose primary assertion is that the universe has expanded into its current state from a primordial condition of enormous density and temperature.
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In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a not known to have substructure; that is, it is not known to be made up of smaller particles.
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A fundamental interaction or fundamental force is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained in terms of another interaction. Every observed physical phenomenon can be explained by these interactions.
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Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. (The exceptions are massless gauge bosons such as the photon.) Even electrically neutral particles, such as the neutron, are not identical to their antiparticle.
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Meson

Mesons of spin 0 form a nonet
Composition: Composite - Quarks and antiquarks
Family: Hadron
Interaction: Strong
Theorized: Hideki Yukawa (1935)
Discovered: 1947
No.
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baryon decuplet.]]

In particle physics, the baryons are the family of subatomic particles which are made of three quarks. The family notably includes the proton and neutron, which make up the atomic nucleus, but many other unstable baryons exist as well.
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A hadron, in particle physics, is any strongly interacting composite subatomic particle. All hadrons are composed of quarks. Hadrons are divided into two classes:
  • Baryons, strongly interacting fermions such as a neutron or a proton, made up of three quarks.

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Color confinement or colour confinement (British spelling), often called just confinement, is the physics phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks) cannot be isolated.
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Murray Gell-Mann

Murray Gell-Mann lecturing in 2007
Born September 15 1929 (1929--) (age 78)
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James Joyce

James Joyce, ca. 1918
Born: 2 January 1884(1884--)
Rathgar, Dublin, Ireland
Died: 13 January 1941 (aged 60)
Zürich, Switzerland
Occupation: Novelist and Poet
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Finnegans Wake

Author James Joyce
Country France/Switzerland
Language English
Genre(s) Novel
Publisher Faber and Faber
Publication date 1924 to 1939
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)
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Onomatopoeia (occasionally spelled onomatopœia) is a word or a grouping of words that imitates the sound it is describing, suggesting its source object, such as "click," "buzz," or "bluuuh," or animal noises
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Munster (Irish: An Mhumhain, IPA: [ənˈvuːnʲ], Cúige Mumhan or Mumha) is the southernmost of the four provinces of Ireland.
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Cork (Irish: Corcaigh) is the second city of the Republic of Ireland and Ireland's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast.
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The strong interaction or strong force is today understood to represent the interactions between quarks and gluons as detailed by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
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Quantum chromodynamics (abbreviated as QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction (color force), a fundamental force describing the interactions of the quarks and gluons found in hadrons (such as the proton, neutron or pion).
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In physics, lattice gauge theory is the study of the behaviour of lattice model gauge theories. That is, it is the study of gauge theories on a spacetime that has been discretized onto a lattice.
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