scammony

Scammony

Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Solanales
Family:Convolvulaceae
Genus:Convolvulus
Species:C. scammonia
Binomial name
Convolvulus scammonia


Scammony (Convolvulus scammonia) is a bindweed native to the countries of the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin; it grows in bushy waste places, from Syria in the south to the Crimea in the north, its range extending westward to the Greek islands, but not to northern Africa or Italy. It is a twining perennial, bearing flowers like those of Convolvulus arvensis, and having irregularly arrow-shaped leaves and a thick fleshy root. The dried juice, virgin scammony, obtained by incision of the living root, has been used in medicine as scammonium, but the variable quality of the drug has led to the employment of scammoniae resina, which is obtained from the dried root by digestion with alcohol.

The active principle is the glucoside scammonin or jalapin, C34H114O6. The dose of scammonium is 5 to 10 grains, of scammony resin 3 to 8 grains. Like certain other resins, scammony is inert until it has passed from the stomach into the duodenum, where it meets the bile, a chemical reaction occurring between it and the taurocholate and glycocholate of sodium, whereby it is converted into a powerful purgative. Its action is essentially that of a hydragogue, and is exercised upon practically the entire length of the alimentary canal. The drug is not a cholagogue, nor does it markedly affect the muscular coat of the bowel, but it causes a great increase of secretion from the intestinal glands. It acts in about four hours. In large doses it is, of course, a violent gastrointestinal irritant. In consonance with the statement that scammony acts only after admixture with the bile, is the fact that hypodermic or intravenous injection of the drug produces no purgation, or rndeed any other result. The drug frequently kills both roundworm and tapeworm, especially the former, and is therefore an anthelmintic. It is not largely used, but is very effective in the treatment of severe constipation, especially in children.

References

Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Plantae
Haeckel, 1866[1]

Divisions

Green algae
  • Chlorophyta
  • Charophyta
Land plants (embryophytes)
  • Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes)

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Magnoliophyta

Classes

Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Liliopsida - Monocots

The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. The flowering plants and the gymnosperms comprise the two extant groups of seed plants.
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Magnoliopsida

Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. By definition the class will include the family Magnoliaceae, but its can otherwise vary, being more inclusive or less inclusive depending upon the classification system being
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Solanales
Dumortier, 1829

Families

at least the following:
  • Solanaceae
  • Convolvulaceae
and others, varying between
classification systems; for
details see text

The Solanales
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Convolvulaceae

Type genus
Convolvulus
L.

Genera
See text

The Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a group of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also
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Convolvulus
L.

Species

See text.

Convolvulus is a genus of about 250 species of flowering plants in the bindweed family Convolvulaceae, with a cosmopolitan distribution.
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binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. The system is also called binominal nomenclature (particularly in zoological circles), binary nomenclature (particularly in botanical circles), or the binomial classification system.
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Bindweed is a common name for two genera in the family Convolvulaceae, and also the common name of the family as a whole:
  • Calystegia
  • Convolvulus
It is also used for an unrelated species in the family Polygonaceae:
  • Black Bindweed

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Mediterranean is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. It covers an approximate area of 2.
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Anthem
Homat el Diyar
Guardians of the Land


Capital
(and largest city) Damascus

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Motto
Процветание в единстве   (Russian)
Protsvetanie v edinstve
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This is a list of some of the 1400 islands of Greece, of which 227 are inhabited (or maybe just 169 as quoted by the Greek Ministry of Press and Mass Media from a 1999 survey quoted in 'About Greece'). Only 78 islands have more than 100 inhabitants.
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Africa is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. At about 30,221,532 km² (11,668,545 sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area, and 20.4% of the total land area.
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Anthem
Il Canto degli Italiani
(also known as Fratelli d'Italia)


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original research or unverifiable claims.
* It needs additional references or sources for verification.

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C. arvensis

Binomial name
Convolvulus arvensis
L.

Convolvulus arvensis (Field Bindweed) is a species of bindweed, native to Europe and Asia.
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leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. For this purpose, a leaf is typically flat (laminar) and thin, to expose the cells containing chloroplast (chlorenchyma tissue, a type of parenchyma) to light over a broad area, and to allow light to penetrate
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alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. The general formula for a simple acyclic alcohol is CnH2n+1OH.
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In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. The word stomach is derived from the Latin stomachus, which derives from the Greek word
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In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. It is the first and shortest part of the small intestine and it is where most chemical digestion takes place.
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Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. In many species, it is stored in the gallbladder between meals and upon eating is discharged into the duodenum
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Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. Certain stimulant, lubricant, and saline laxatives are used to evacuate the colon for rectal and bowel examinations. They are sometimes supplemented by enemas.
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gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste.
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Nematoda
Rudolphi, 1808

Classes

Adenophorea
   Subclass Enoplia
   Subclass Chromadoria
Secernentea
   Subclass Rhabditia
   Subclass Spiruria
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Cestoda

Orders

Subclass Cestodaria
Amphilinidea
Gyrocotylidea
Subclass Eucestoda
Aporidea
Caryophyllidea
Cyclophyllidea
Diphyllidea
Lecanicephalidea
Litobothridea
Nippotaeniidea
Proteocephalidea
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