shadda

Shadda (Arabic شَدَّة šaddatun "[sign of] emphasis", also called by the verbal noun to the same root, Tashdid تشديد tašdīdun "emphasis"), is one of the diacritics (Harakat) used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate). It is thus functionally equivalent to writing a consonant twice in the orthographies of languages like Latin, Italian, Swedish and Ancient Greek, and thus it is rendered in Latin script in most schemes of Arabic transliteration, e.g. رُمَّان = rummān "pomegranate".

Consonant length in Arabic is contrastive: دَرَسَ darasa means "he studied" while دَرَّسَ darrasa means "he taught"; بَكَى صَبِيّ baka ṣabiyy means "a youth cried" while بَكَى الصَّبِيّ baka ṣṣabiyy means "the youth cried". A consonant may be long because of the form of the noun or verb, e.g. the causative form of the verb requires the 2nd consonant of the root to be long, as in darrasa above, or by assimilation of consonants, for example the l- of the Arabic definite article assimilates to all dental consonants, e.g. (a)ṣṣabiyy instead of (a)lṣabiyy, or through haplology, that is, the elision of two identical consonants, for example أَقَلّ ʾaqall "less, fewer" instead of أَقْلَل ʾaqlal, as compared to أَكْبَر ʾakbar "greater".

The syllable closing with the long consonant is made a long syllable. This affects both stress and prosody. Stress falls on the first long syllable from the end of the word, hence أَقَلّ ʾaqáll (or, with i`rab, ʾaqállu) as opposed to أَكْبَر ʾákbaru, مَحَبَّة maḥábba "love, agape" as opposed to مَعْرِفَة máʿrifa "[experiential] knowledge". In Arabic verse, when scanning the meter, the syllable closing with the long consonant is counted as long, just like any other syllable closing with a consonant or a syllable ending in a long vowel: أَلا تَمْدَحَنَّ ʾalā tamdaḥanna "Will you not indeed praise...?" is scanned as ʾa-lā tam-da-ḥan-na: short, long, long, short, long, short.

See also

al-‘Arabiyyah in written Arabic (Kufic script):  
Pronunciation: /alˌʕa.raˈbij.ja/
Spoken in: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman,
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ḥarakāt (حركات — the singular is ḥaraka حركة) are the diacritic marks used to represent vowel sounds.
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Arabic abjad

Unicode range U+0600 to U+06FF
U+0750 to U+077F
U+FB50 to U+FDFF
U+FE70 to U+FEFF
ISO 15924 Arab (#160)

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
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gemination occurs when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant.

Consonant length is distinctive in some languages, for instance Italian, Japanese, Arabic, Finnish and Luganda.
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Latin}}} 
Official status
Official language of: Vatican City
Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
Roman Catholic Church
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
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Italian}}} 
Official status
Official language of:  European Union
 European Union
 Switzerland
 San Marino
Vatican City
Sovereign Military Order of Malta

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Swedish}}} 
Official status
Official language of:  European Union
 European Union (in Noarootsi along with Estonian) [1]
 Finland
 Sweden (de facto)
Nordic Council
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Ancient Greek refers to the second stage in the history of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Greece.
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ṣdʾm ḥsyn, which is meaningless to an untrained reader.
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Al- (Arabic: ال۔, also transliterated as el- and in some cases
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Agapē (IPA: /ˈægəpiː/[1]) (Gk. αγάπη [aˈɣa.
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This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers.
Please [improve the article] or discuss this issue on the talk page. This article has been tagged since August 2007.
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ḥarakāt (حركات — the singular is ḥaraka حركة) are the diacritic marks used to represent vowel sounds.
..... Click the link for more information.
Arabic abjad

Unicode range U+0600 to U+06FF
U+0750 to U+077F
U+FB50 to U+FDFF
U+FE70 to U+FEFF
ISO 15924 Arab (#160)

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
..... Click the link for more information.


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