sulcus (neuroanatomy)

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Gray's Fig. 726– Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from the side.
In neuroanatomy, a sulcus (Latin: "furrow", pl. sulci) is a depression or fissure in the surface of the brain. It surrounds the gyri, creating the characteristic appearance of the brain in humans and other large mammals.

Large furrows (sulci) that divide the brain into lobes are often called fissures. The large furrow that divide the two hemispheres - the interhemispheric fissure - is very rarely called a "sulcus".

Individual variation

The sulcal pattern varies between human individuals, and the most elaborate overview on this variation is probably an atlas by Ono, Kubick and Abernathey: Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci[1]. Some of the larger sulci are, however, seen across individuals - and even species - so it is possible to establish a nomenclature.

Gyrification across species

The variation in the amount of fissures in the brain ("gyrification") between species is more related to the overall size of the animal rather than the encephalization. That is, large animals have many sulci:
"[L]arge rodents such as beavers (40 pounds) and capybaras (150 pounds) have many more sulci than smaller rodents such as rats and mice - but also more fissures than smaller monkeys"[2].

Notable sulci

Macaque

A macaque has a more simple sulcal pattern. In a monograph Bonin and Bailey list the following as the primary sulci[3]:
  • Calcarine fissure (ca)
  • Central sulcus (ce)
  • Sulcus cinguli (ci)
  • Hippocampal fissure (h)
  • Sulcus intraparitalis (ip)
  • Lateral fissure (or Sylvian fissure) (la)
  • Sulcus olfactorius (olf)
  • Medial parieto-occipital fissure (pom)
  • fissura rhinalis (rh)
  • Sulcus temporalis superior (ts) - this sulcus runs parallel to the lateral fissure and extends to the temporal pole and often superficially merges with it.

See also

References

1. ^ Ono, Kubick, Abernathey, Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci, Thieme Medical Publishers, 1990. ISBN 0-86577-362-9. ISBN 3-13-732101-8.
2. ^ Martin I. Sereno, Roger B. H. Tootell, "From Monkeys to humans: what do we now know about brain homologies,"
Current Opinion in Neurobiology'' 15:135-144, (2005).
3. ^ Gerhardt von Bonin, Percival Bailey, The Neocortex of Macaca Mulatta, The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 1947

External links

Neuroanatomy is the branch of anatomy that studies the anatomical organization of the nervous system. In vertebrate animals, the routes that the myriad nerves take from the brain to the rest of the body (or "periphery"), and the internal structure of the brain in particular, are
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Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
Roman Catholic Church
Language codes
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gyrus (pl. gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex. It is generally surrounded by one or more sulci.

Notable gyri

  • Fornicate gyrus
  • Superior frontal gyrus
  • Middle frontal gyrus
  • Inferior frontal gyrus
  • Superior temporal gyrus

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In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for "in the skull"), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. The brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing,
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Mammalia
Linnaeus, 1758

Subclasses & Infraclasses
  • Subclass †Allotheria*
  • Subclass Prototheria
  • Subclass Theria

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The term lobe generally refers to a projecting part of an object, but it can have more specific meanings.
  • In biology, lobe (anatomy)
  • In telecommunication, the term lobe

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The medial longitudinal fissure (or longitudinal cerebral fissure, or longitudinal fissure, or interhemispheric fissure) is the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain.
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Encephalization is defined as the amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animal's total body mass. Quantifying an animal's encephalization has been argued to be directly related to that animal's level of intelligence.
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Rodentia
Bowdich, 1821

Suborders

Sciuromorpha
Castorimorpha
Myomorpha
Anomaluromorpha
Hystricomorpha
Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents
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Castor
Linnaeus, 1758

Species
C. canadensis
C. fiber
C. californicus
Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe.
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Hydrochoerus

Species: H. hydrochaeris

Binomial name
Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
(Linnaeus, 1766)


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The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. It divides the frontal lobe and parietal lobe above from the temporal lobe below.
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The central sulcus is a fold in the cerebral cortex of brains in vertebrates. Also called the central fissure, it was originally called the fissure of Rolando or the Rolandic fissure, after Luigi Rolando.
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The postcentral sulcus of the parietal lobe lies parallel to, and behind, the central sulcus in the human brain. (A sulcus is one of the prominent grooves on the surface of the brain.
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The precentral sulcus lies parallel to, and in front of, the central sulcus. (A sulcus is one of the prominent grooves on the surface of the human brain.)

The precentral sulcus divides the inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri from the precentral gyrus.
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The cingulate sulcus is a sulcus (brain fold) on the medial wall of the cerebral cortex.

See also

  • Cingulate gyrus
  • Cingulate cortex

External links

  • Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator, at Elsevier 13048.000-3

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The superior frontal sulcus is a sulcus between the superior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus.
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The inferior frontal sulcus is a sulcus between the middle frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus.
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Macaca
Lacepede, 1799

Type species
Simia inuus
Linnaeus, 1758 = Simia sylvanus Linnaeus, 1758

Species
See text.

The macaques (IPA: /məˈkak/
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The calcarine fissure (or calcarine sulcus) is an anatomical landmark located at the very caudal end of the medial surface of the brain. It begins near the occipital pole in two converging rami and runs forward to a point a little below the splenium of the corpus callosum,
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The central sulcus is a fold in the cerebral cortex of brains in vertebrates. Also called the central fissure, it was originally called the fissure of Rolando or the Rolandic fissure, after Luigi Rolando.
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The cingulate sulcus is a sulcus (brain fold) on the medial wall of the cerebral cortex.

See also

  • Cingulate gyrus
  • Cingulate cortex

External links

  • Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator, at Elsevier 13048.000-3

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The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. It divides the frontal lobe and parietal lobe above from the temporal lobe below.
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The medial orbital gyrus presents a well-marked antero-posterior sulcus, the olfactory sulcus, for the olfactory tract.

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.
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A sulcus (pronounced with a hard c) (pl. sulci) is a depression or fissure in the surface of an organ, especially the brain.

Examples of sulci

In the brain

See Sulcus (neuroanatomy)

Elsewhere

  • sulcus arteriæ vertebralis

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Current Opinion is a series of review journals published by Elsevier on various subjects of biology. Each issue, published every two months, contains one or more themed ‘sections’ edited by scientists who specialise in the field and invite authors to contribute
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In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for "in the skull"), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. The brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing,
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