viral marketing

Viral marketing and viral advertising refer to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness, through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of pathological and computer viruses. It can be word-of-mouth delivered or enhanced by the network effects of the Internet. [1] Viral marketing is a marketing phenomenon that facilitates and encourages people to pass along a marketing message voluntarily.[2] Viral promotions may take the form of funny video clips, interactive Flash games, advergames, images, or even text messages.

It is claimed that a satisfied customer tells an average of three people about a product or service he/she likes, and eleven people about a product or service which he/she did not like.[3] Viral marketing is based on this natural human behaviour.

The goal of marketers interested in creating successful viral marketing programs is to identify individuals with high Social Networking Potential (SNP) and create Viral Messages that appeal to this segment of the population and have a high probability of being passed along.

The term "viral marketing" is also sometimes used pejoratively to refer to stealth marketing campaigns[4]--the use of varied kinds of astroturfing both online and offline [5] to create the impression of spontaneous word of mouth enthusiasm.

History

The term Viral Marketing was coined by a Harvard Business School professor, Jeffrey F. Rayport, in a December 1996 article for Fast Company The Virus of Marketing. [6] The term was further popularized by Tim Draper and Steve Jurvetson of the venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson in 1997 to describe Hotmail's e-mail practice of appending advertising for itself in outgoing mail from their users.[7]

Among the first to write about viral marketing on the Internet was media critic Douglas Rushkoff in his 1994 book Media Virus. The assumption is that if such an advertisement reaches a "susceptible" user, that user will become "infected" (i.e., sign up for an account) and can then go on to infect other susceptible users. As long as each infected user sends mail to more than one susceptible user on average (i.e., the basic reproductive rate is greater than one), standard in epidemiology imply that the number of infected users will grow according to a logistic curve, whose initial segment appears exponential.

Among the first to write about algorithms designed to identify people with high Social Networking Potential is Bob Gerstley in Advertising Research is Changing. Gerstley uses SNP algorithms in quantitative marketing research to help marketers maximize the effectiveness of viral marketing campaigns.

Notable examples of viral marketing

  • BusinessWeek (2001) described web-based campaigns for Hotmail (1996) and The Blair Witch Project (1999) as striking examples of viral marketing, but warned of some dangers for imitation marketers. [8]
  • Burger King's The Subservient Chicken campaign was cited in Wired as a striking example of viral or word-of-mouth marketing. [9]
  • In 2000, Slate described TiVo's unpublicized gambit of giving free TiVo's to web-savvy enthusiasts to create "viral" word of mouth, pointing out that a viral campaign differs from a publicity stunt. [10]
  • With the emergence of Web 2.0, mostly all web startups like facebook.com, youtube.com, collabotrade.com, myspace.com, and digg.com have made well use of Viral Marketing by merging it with the social networking.
  • VistaLogic (vistalogic.co.uk) is a prime example of a new breed of internet based marketing & advertisement companies that have emerged with Web 2.0 who make full use of viral marketing on social networking platforms

See also

References

Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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Marketing is a social process which satisfies consumers' wants. The term includes advertising, distribution and selling of a product or service. It is also concerned with anticipating the customers' future needs and wants, often through market research.
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social network is a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as values, visions, idea, financial exchange, friends, kinship, dislike, conflict, trade, web links, sexual
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A brand includes a name, logo, slogan, and/or design scheme associated with a product or service. Brand recognition and other reactions are created by the use of the product or service and through the influence of advertising, design, and media commentary.
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Viral phenomena are objects or patterns able to replicate themselves or convert other objects into copies of themselves when these objects are exposed to them.

The concept of something, other than a biological virus, being viral
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A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. The original virus may modify the copies, or the copies may modify themselves, as occurs in a metamorphic virus.
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Word of mouth, is a reference to the passing of information by verbal means, especially recommendations, but also general information, in an informal, person-to-person manner.
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Player support only: GNU/Linux (Intel, x86) and Solaris (Intel, SPARC) [1]
Genre: Multimedia Content Creator
License: Proprietary EULA
Website: Adobe.com's Flash page Adobe Flash, or simply Flash
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Advergaming is the practice of using video games to advertise a product, organization or viewpoint. The term "advergames" was coined in January 2000 by Anthony Giallourakis who purchased the URLs Advergames.com along with Adverplay.com.
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This is the practise of taking the marketing message directly to the personal pocket of the prospect. It can appear to be very intrusive, so marketers must tread carefully.

The ownership and use of cell/mobile phones has gained huge market penetration.
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Social Networking Potential (SNP) is a numeric coefficient, derived through algorithms to represent both the size of an individual's social network and their ability to influence that network.
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Viral Messages refer to marketing messages that are passed from person to person through their Social Networks. To create successful viral marketing messages, where success is defined as positive Return on Investment, marketers must:

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A word is a term of derision, or a phrase is pejorative, if it implies contempt or disapproval. The adjective pejorative is synonymous with derogatory, derisive, and dyslogistic.
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Undercover marketing (also known as buzz marketing, stealth marketing, or by its detractors roach baiting) is a subset of guerrilla marketing where consumers do not realize they are being marketed to.
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Astroturfing is a term for formal public relations campaigns in politics and advertising that seek to create the impression of being spontaneous, grassroots behaviour.
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Word of mouth, is a reference to the passing of information by verbal means, especially recommendations, but also general information, in an informal, person-to-person manner.
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Timothy Cook Draper is the founder of the global venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson. He is third in a line of venture capitalists. His father, William Henry Draper III, founded the Draper & Johnson Investment Company in 1962, Sutter Hill in 1968, Draper International
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Steven T. Jürvetson (born in Arizona, USA, 1967) is a Managing Director of Draper Fisher Jurvetson (DFJ). He was the founding Venture Capitalist (VC) investor in Hotmail, Interwoven, and Kana.
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Windows Live Hotmail (formerly MSN Hotmail), commonly known as Hotmail, is a free webmail service by Microsoft, part of the Windows Live range of services.

The current version was announced on November 1, 2005 as an update to Microsoft's existing MSN Hotmail service.
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E-mail (short for electronic mail; often also abbreviated as e-mail, email or simply mail) is a store and forward method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.
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Advertising is paid, one-way communication through a medium in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled by the sponsor. Variations include publicity, public relations, etc..
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Douglas Rushkoff (born 18 February 1961) is a New York-based writer, columnist and lecturer on technology, media and popular culture.

Biography and ideas

Rushkoff graduated magna cum laude from Princeton University.
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In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number of an infection is the mean number of secondary cases a typical single infected case will cause in a population with no immunity to the disease in the absence of interventions to control the infection.
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Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine.
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logistic function or logistic curve models the S-curve of growth of some set P. The initial stage of growth is approximately exponential; then, as saturation begins, the growth slows, and at maturity, growth stops.
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BusinessWeek
Type Weekly Business Periodical
Format Magazine


Owner McGraw-Hill
Editor John Byrne
Editor-in-Chief Stephen J. Adler
Founded 1929
Language English
Price USD $4.99
Headquarters New York City
Circulation 4.
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Windows Live Hotmail (formerly MSN Hotmail), commonly known as Hotmail, is a free webmail service by Microsoft, part of the Windows Live range of services.

The current version was announced on November 1, 2005 as an update to Microsoft's existing MSN Hotmail service.
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The Blair Witch Project is a 1999 independent horror film, financed and distributed by Artisan Entertainment.
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