# wave mechanics

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Quantum theory may mean:

quantum mechanics is the study of the relationship between energy quanta (radiation) and matter, in particular that between valence shell electrons and photons. Quantum mechanics is a fundamental branch of physics with wide applications in both experimental and theoretical physics.
Quantum mechanics (QM, or quantum theory) is a physical science dealing with the behaviour of matter and energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles / waves.[1]
The mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics is the body of mathematical formalisms which permits a rigorous description of quantum mechanics. It is distinguished from mathematical formalisms for theories developed prior to the early 1900s by the use of abstract mathematical
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Interference is the addition (superposition) of two or more waves that results in a new wave pattern.

As most commonly used, the term interference usually refers to the interaction of waves which are correlated or coherent with each other, either because they
Heisenberg uncertainty principle, or HUP, gives a lower bound on the product of the standard deviations of position and momentum for a system, implying that it is impossible to have a particle that has an arbitrarily well-defined position and momentum simultaneously.
The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. This principle is significant, because it explains why matter occupies space exclusively for itself and does not allow other material objects to pass through it, while at the same
The term transformation theory refers to a procedure used by P. A. M. Dirac in his early formulation of quantum theory, from around 1927.

The term is related to the famous wave-particle duality, according to which a particle (a "small" physical object) may display
The Ehrenfest theorem, named after Paul Ehrenfest, relates the time derivative of the expectation value for a quantum mechanical operator to the commutator of that operator with the Hamiltonian of the system.
The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement, and a thorough discussion of its practical and philosophical implications.

## Measurement from a practical point of view

π due to reflection at the interface of a denser medium)

## Quantum version of experiment

By the 1920s, various other experiments (such as the photoelectric effect) had demonstrated that light interacts with matter only in discrete, "quantum"-sized packets called photons.
In quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox is a thought experiment which challenged long-held ideas about the relation between the observed values of physical quantities and the values that can be accounted for by a physical theory.
action at a distance.

## The debate

Many viewed Popper's experiment as a crucial test of quantum mechanics, and there was a debate on what result an actual realization of the experiment would yield.
The Pauli equation is a SchrÃ¶dinger equation which describes the time evolution of spin 1/2 particles (eg. electrons). It is the non-relativistic border case of the Dirac equation and can be used where particles are slow enough that relativistic effects can be neglected.
The Klein-Gordon equation (Klein-Fock-Gordon equation or sometimes Klein-Gordon-Fock equation) is the relativistic version of the SchrÃ¶dinger equation, which is used to describe spinless particles. It was named after Oskar Klein and Walter Gordon.
In physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation formulated by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928 and provides a description of elementary spin-Â½ particles, such as electrons, consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the
Quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of field-like systems, or, equivalently, of many-body systems. It is widely used in particle physics and condensed matter physics.
In physics the Wightman axioms are an attempt at a mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum field theory. Arthur Wightman formulated the axioms in the early 1950s but they were first published only in 1964, after Haag-Ruelle scattering theory affirmed their significance.
Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. QED was developed by a number of physicists, beginning in the late 1920s.[1]
Quantum chromodynamics (abbreviated as QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction (color force), a fundamental force describing the interactions of the quarks and gluons found in hadrons (such as the proton, neutron or pion).
Quantum gravity is the field of theoretical physics attempting to unify quantum mechanics, which describes three of the fundamental forces of nature, with general relativity, the theory of the fourth fundamental force: gravity.
radiates a gluon. (Time goes left to right, and one space dimension runs from top to bottom.)]]

A Feynman diagram is a tool invented by American physicist Richard Feynman for performing scattering calculations in quantum field theory.
An interpretation of quantum mechanics is a statement which attempts to explain how quantum mechanics informs our understanding of nature. Although quantum mechanics has been extensively tested in very fine experiments, some believe the fundamentals of the theory are yet to be
The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg while collaborating in Copenhagen around 1927. Bohr and Heisenberg extended the probabilistic interpretation of the wave function, proposed by Max Born.
The Ensemble Interpretation, or Statistical Interpretation of quantum mechanics, is an interpretation that can be viewed as a minimalist interpretation; it is a quantum mechanical interpretation that claims to make the fewest assumptions associated with the standard
''Hidden variable redirects here. For hidden variables in economics, see latent variable.

In physics, hidden variable theories are espoused by a minority of physicists who argue that the statistical nature of quantum mechanics indicates that quantum