Calopterygidae

Family of damselflies

The Calopterygidae are a family of damselflies, in the suborder Zygoptera. They are commonly known as the broad-winged damselflies, demoiselles, or jewelwings. These rather large damselflies have wingspans of 50–80:mm (compared to about 44:mm in the common bluetail damselfly, Ischnura elegans) and are often metallic-coloured. The family contains some 150 species.

The Calopterygidae are found on every continent except Antarctica. They live along rivers and streams.

Contents

Etymology

The name is derived from Greek kalos meaning beautiful and ptery meaning winged.

Characteristics

The adults have metallic bodies; their wings are broader, with wider bases than other damselflies, and at rest hold their wings parallel to the body, slightly elevated. Some species have conspicuously colored wings; in males, the wings are usually blue, without pterostigmas, in females green or brown. Species are often quite variable in color and patterning, and they are sexually dimorphic. Color intensity may fade with age. The wings are heavily veined, having often 18 or more antenodal veins. The first segment of their antennae is longer than the combined length of the other segments. They have a jerky, skipping form of flight (fluttering, rather than hovering stably like many other damselfly and dragonfly families). They perch horizontally on twigs near the water's edge.

Calopterygidae nymphs have lateral gills are longer than the median gills. The nymphs have a flattened, pentagonal-shaped head, a long first antennal segment and long legs. They are found among submerged aquatic plants, woody debris and the exposed roots of streamside plants. There is a single generation per year.

Behavior

Play media Hetaerina americana mating: sperm removal

Males are often territorial, guarding riverine habitat that is sought after by females for egg deposition. Some males are not territorial. Within a species there may be a territorial and nonterritorial morph, which may be different in coloration.

Some species display courtship behavior, especially displays of wing movement by the male. At least one genus (Hetaerina) displays lekking behavior.

During mating, the male first removes other males' sperm from the female's reproductive tract, then places his own sperm there. The intromittent organ of the male has spines that physically remove rival sperm and also stimulate the female's muscles... ...read more

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