The flag of Iran (Persian: پرچم ایران, romanized: parčam-e Irân, pronounced [pʰæɾˌtʃʰæme ʔiːˈɾɒːn]), also known as the Three-Coloured Flag (پرچم سه رنگ ایران, parčam-e se rang Irân [pʰæɾˌtʃʰæme se ræŋ ʔiːˈɾɒːn]), is a tricolour comprising equal horizontal bands of green, white and red with the national emblem ("Allah") in red centred on the white band and the takbir written 11 times each in the Kufic script in white, at the bottom of the green and the top of the red band.This flag was adopted on 29 July 1980, as a reflection of the changes brought about by the Iranian Revolution of 1979, which resulted in the replacement of Pahlavi monarchy with an Islamic Republic, supported by a wide range of Islamist organizations and student movements. In opposition to the current regime in Iran, a number of Iranian exiles (particularly in Los Angeles, Paris, London, Berlin, Amsterdam, etc.) continue to use the Iranian tricolor with the Lion and Sun at the center.
The parliament of Iran, per the 1980 constitution, changed the flag and seal of state insofar as the Lion and Sun were replaced by the red emblem in the centre of the flag. Designed by Hamid Nadimi, and officially approved by Parliament and the Leader Grand Ayatollah Khomeini on 9 May 1980, this emblem is a highly stylised composite of various Islamic elements: a geometrically symmetric form of the word Allah ("God") and overlapping parts of the phrase lā ʾilāha ʾillā l-Lāh, (There is no God Except Allah), forming a monogram in the form of a tulip it consists of four crescents and a line. The four crescents read from right to left; the first crescent is the letter aleph, the second crescent is the first laam; the vertical line is the second laam, and the third and fourth crescents together form the heh.
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