History of India (1947–present)

History of India (1947–present), History of India post transition to democracy.

History of India (1947–present) image

This article is about history of Republic of India established after 1950. For pre-establishment era of the state, see History of India.History of India post transition to democracy

The history of independent India began when the country became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth on 15 August 1947. Direct administration by the British, which began in 1858, affected a political and economic unification of the subcontinent. When British rule came to an end in 1947, the subcontinent was partitioned along religious lines into two separate countries—India, with a majority of Hindus, and Pakistan, with a majority of Muslims. Concurrently the Muslim-majority northwest and east of British India was separated into the Dominion of Pakistan, by the partition of India. The partition led to a population transfer of more than 10 million people between India and Pakistan and the death of about one million people. Indian National Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India, but the leader most associated with the independence struggle, Mahatma Gandhi, accepted no office. The Constitution adopted in 1950 made India a democratic country, and this democracy has been sustained since then. India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newly independent states.

The nation has faced religious violence, casteism, naxalism, terrorism and regional separatist insurgencies. India has unresolved territorial disputes with China which in 1962 escalated into the Sino-Indian War, and with Pakistan which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. India was neutral in the Cold War, and a leader in the Non-Aligned Movement.:It had a brief era of alliance with former Soviet Union, when Pakistan was closely allied to the United States and People's Republic of China.

India is a nuclear-weapon state, having conducted its first nuclear test in 1974, followed by another five tests in 1998. From the 1950s to the 1980s, India followed socialist-inspired policies. The economy was influenced by extensive regulation, protectionism and public ownership, leading to pervasive corruption and slow economic growth. Beginning in 1991, neoliberal economic reforms have transformed India into the third largest and one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. From being a relatively destitute country in its formative years, Indian Republic has emerged as a fast growing G20 major economy with high military spending, and is seeking a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council.

India has sometimes been referred to as a great power and a potential superpower given its large and growing economy, military and population.

Contents

  • 1 1947–1950: Dominion of India
    • 1.1 Partition of India
    • 1.2 Integration of princely states
    • 1.3 Constitution
    • 1.4 Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948
  • 2 1950s and 1960s
    • 2.1 Nehru administration (1952–1964)
    • 2.2 States reorganisation
    • 2.3 C. Rajagopalachari and formation of Swatantra Party
    • 2.4 Foreign policy and military conflicts
    • 2.5 Post-Nehru India
  • 3 1970s
    • 3.1 Annexation of Sikkim
    • 3.2 Formation of Northeastern states
    • 3.3 Green revolution and Operation Flood
    • 3.4 Indo-Pakistan War of 1971
    • 3.5 Indian Emergency
    • 3.6 Janata interlude
  • 4 1980s
    • 4.1 Rajiv Gandhi administration
    • 4.2 Janata Dal
  • 5 1990s
    • 5.1 Economic reforms
    • 5.2 Era of coalitions
  • 6 2000s
    • 6.1 Under Bharatiya Janata Party
    • 6.2 Congress rule returns
  • 7 2010s
    • 7.1 Congress rule continues
    • 7.2 2014 – Return of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Government
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading
    • 10.1 Primary sources...read more
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