The History of the Punjab refers to the history of the Punjab region, a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. Ancient Punjab was the primary geographical extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation, which was notable for advanced technologies and amenities that the people of the region had used. During the Vedic period, Punjab was referred to as Sapta Sindhu, or the Land of Seven Rivers. Punjab was historically a Hindu-Buddhist region during this period, known for its scholarship, technology, and arts. Intermittent wars between various kingdoms were characteristic of the time, except when they temporarily unified under centralised Indian Empires or invading powers.
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