The history of human settlement in the west Indian state of Rajasthan dates back to about 5,000 years ago. This region was inhabited during great floods after the ice age as well. This area was known as Matsya kingdom. It was the site of the Indus Valley Civilization. The early medieval period saw the rise of many Rajput kingdoms like Pratihars, Chauhans of Ajmer, Guhilot and Sisodias of Mewar, Shekhawats of Shekhawati Sikar, Rathores of Marwar.Location of Rajasthan
The Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century.it was the power of the Pratihara army that effectively barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.
After Matsya kingdom this area was known as Rajputana around the time when the Kachwaha migrated to the region. The Kachwahas continued to assist their Rajput allies in many Fatal battles including First Battle of Tarain and later in the disastrous Second Battle of Tarain. The last time where Kachwahas fought for Rajputs was under Rana Sanga of Chittor in the Battle of Khanwa.
Sisodia of Chittor, who continue to resist Mughals against heavy odds and gave rise to Maharana Pratap who became a symbol of Rajput valour along with Rana Sanga and Prithviraj Chauhan. After Indian Independence in 1947, the various princely states of Rajasthan were integrated. The British made several treaties with rulers of Rajasthan and also made allies out of local rulers, who were allowed to rule their princely states. This period was marked by famines and economic exploitation.