New Spain, Kingdom of the Spanish Empire (1535–1821).
New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España Spanish pronunciation: [birejˈnato ðe ˈnweβa esˈpaɲa] (listen)), was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included much of North America, northern parts of South America and several Pacific Ocean archipelagos, namely the Philippines and Guam.
It originated in 1521 after the fall of Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest. Officially created on 18 August 1521 as the Kingdom of New Spain (Spanish: reino), it later became the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco and the capital, both of the kingdom and of the later viceroyalty, was Mexico City, established on the ancient city of Mēxíhco-Tenōchtítlān following its conquest by Spain.
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