Observer-expectancy effect

Observer-expectancy effect, An experiment participant altering their behaviour in response to a researcher's expectation.

The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment. Confirmation bias can lead to the experimenter interpreting results incorrectly because of the tendency to look for information that conforms to their hypothesis, and overlook information that argues against it. It is a significant threat to a study's internal validity, and is therefore typically controlled using a double-blind experimental design. It may include conscious or unconscious influences on subject behavior including creation of demand characteristics that influence subjects, and altered or selective recording of experimental results themselves. Overview The experimenter may introduce cognitive bias into a study in several ways.

Observer effect
1 month ago

Observer effect ... behavior, in response to their knowing that they are being studied Observer-expectancy effect, a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes...

Bias
1 month ago

Bias ... forecasts may have an overall tendency to be too high or too low. The observer-expectancy effect is when a researcher's expectations cause them to subconsciously...

Expectancy effect
1 month ago

Expectancy effect ... Expectancy effect may refer to: Observer-expectancy effect Subject-expectancy effect This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title...

Subject-expectancy effect
1 month ago

Subject-expectancy effect ... effect. Like the observer-expectancy effect, it is often a cause of "odd" results in many experiments. The subject-expectancy effect is most commonly...

Pygmalion effect
1 month ago

Pygmalion effect ... the expectations of others, called the observer-expectancy effect. Rosenthal argued that biased expectancies could affect reality and create self-fulfilling...

Clever Hans
1 month ago

Clever Hans ... been referred to as the Clever Hans effect and has continued to be important knowledge in the observer-expectancy effect and later studies in animal cognition...

Observer bias
1 month ago

Observer bias ... limit observer bias. Observer bias can also be avoided or limited by having researchers work independently of one another. Observer-expectancy effect, when...

List of psychological effects
1 month ago

List of psychological effects ... Negativity effect Novelty effect Numerosity adaptation effect Observer-expectancy effect Out-group homogeneity effect Overconfidence effect Overjustification...

Between-group design
1 week ago

Between-group design ... The double blind design can protect the experiment from the observer-expectancy effect. The utilization of the between-group experimental design has...

Reactivity (psychology)
2 months ago

Reactivity (psychology) ... high test-retest reliability. Bradley effect Demand characteristics Observer-expectancy effect Watching-Eye Effect Social desirability bias Heppner, Puncky;...

Kosik (elephant)
1 month ago
Confirmation bias
1 month ago
Demand characteristics
1 month ago
Lindy effect
1 month ago
Nocebo
1 month ago
Hawthorne effect
1 month ago
List of cognitive biases
1 month ago
Batyr
8 months ago
Self-fulfilling prophecy
2 months ago
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