The General Crisis

The Thirty Years' War devastated much of Europe 1618–1648 and was one of the many political upheavals during the General Crisis.

The General Crisis is a term used by some historians to describe the period of widespread global conflict and instability that occurred from the early 17th century to the early 18th century in Europe and in more recent historiography in the world at large.

The term was coined by Eric Hobsbawm in his pair of 1954 articles, "The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century", published in Past and Present.

Contents

Definition

As a historiographic concept, the place of the general crisis was cemented by Hugh Trevor-Roper in a 1959 article entitled "The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century" published in the same journal. Hobsbawm discussed an economic crisis in Europe; Trevor-Roper saw a wider crisis, "a crisis in the relations between society and the State". Trevor-Roper argued that the middle years of the 17th century in Western Europe saw a widespread breakdown in politics, economics and society caused by a complex series of demographic, religious, economic and political problems. In the "general crisis", various events such as the English Civil War, the Fronde in France, the climax of the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire and revolts against the Spanish Crown in Portugal, Naples and Catalonia were all manifestations of the same problem. The most important cause of the "general crisis", in Trevor-Roper’s opinion, was the conflict between "Court" and "Country"; that is between the increasingly powerful centralising, bureaucratic, sovereign princely states represented by the court, and the traditional, regional, land-based aristocracy and gentry representing the country. He saw the intellectual and religious changes introduced by the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation as important secondary causes of the "general crisis".

There were various controversies regarding the "general crisis" thesis between historians. Some simply denied the existence of any such crisis. For instance, Hobsbawm saw the problems of 17th-century Europe as being social and economic in origin, an emphasis that Trevor-Roper would not concede. Instead, he theorised that the 'General Crisis' was a crisis of state and society, precipitated by the expansion of bureaucratic offices in... ...read more

Crisis of the Late Middle Ages
4 months ago

Crisis of the Late Middle Ages ... The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages was a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that ended centuries of European stability. Three major...

Financial crisis of 2007–2008
3 months ago

Financial crisis of 2007–2008 ... The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis (GFC), was a severe worldwide economic crisis. Prior to the COVID-19 recession...

Crisis
5 months ago

Crisis ... stress and used to suggest a frightening or fraught experience. In general, crisis is the situation of a "complex system" (family, economy, society. Note...

Cuban Missile Crisis
6 months ago

Cuban Missile Crisis ... The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Spanish: Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis (Russian: Карибский кризис, tr....

Economic depression
6 months ago

Economic depression ... all time occurred during the General Crisis. The Ming Province of China went bankrupt and the Stuart Monarchy was in the civil war on three fronts in...

1997 Asian financial crisis
6 months ago

1997 Asian financial crisis ... The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia and Southeast Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears...

Crisis of the Third Century
6 months ago

Crisis of the Third Century ... The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (235–284 AD), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed...

List of suicide crisis lines
5 months ago

List of suicide crisis lines ... Suicide crisis lines can be found in many countries worldwide. Many are geared to a general audience while others are specific to a select demographic...

1975 Australian constitutional crisis
6 months ago

1975 Australian constitutional crisis ... The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, also known simply as the Dismissal, culminated on 11 November 1975 with the dismissal from office of the Prime...

17th century
6 months ago

17th century ... and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid...

Hugh Trevor-Roper
4 months ago
Suez Crisis
6 months ago
Midlife crisis
6 months ago
Secretary-General of the United Nations
6 months ago
The Crisis
6 months ago
Greek government-debt crisis
4 months ago
Congo Crisis
6 months ago
Crisis in Venezuela
5 months ago
Replication crisis
4 months ago
This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia® - the free encyclopedia created and edited by its online user community. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.