Timeline of volcanism on Earth

Wikipedia list article Clickable imagemap of notable volcanic eruptions. The apparent volume of each bubble is linearly proportional to the volume of tephra ejected, colour-coded by time of eruption as in the legend. Pink lines denote convergent boundaries, blue lines denote divergent boundaries and yellow spots denote hotspots.

This timeline of volcanism on Earth includes a list of major volcanic eruptions of approximately at least magnitude 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) or equivalent sulfur dioxide emission during the Quaternary period (from 2.58 Mya to the present). Other volcanic eruptions are also listed.

Some eruptions cooled the global climate—inducing a volcanic winter—depending on the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted and the magnitude of the eruption. Before the present Holocene epoch, the criteria are less strict because of scarce data availability, partly since later eruptions have destroyed the evidence. Only some eruptions before the Neogene period (from 23 Mya to 2.58 Mya) are listed. Known large eruptions after the Paleogene period (from 66 Mya to 23 Mya) are listed, especially those relating to the Yellowstone hotspot, the Santorini caldera, and the Taupo Volcanic Zone.

Active volcanoes such as Stromboli, Mount Etna and Kīlauea do not appear on this list, but some back-arc basin volcanoes that generated calderas do appear. Some dangerous volcanoes in "populated areas" appear many times: Santorini six times, and Yellowstone hotspot 21 times. The Bismarck volcanic arc, New Britain, and the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, appear often too.

In addition to the events listed below, there are many examples of eruptions in the Holocene on the Kamchatka Peninsula, which are described in a supplemental table by Peter Ward.

Contents

1465 mystery eruption
4 months ago

1465 mystery eruption ... pressure on medieval governments and negatively impacted military efforts. 1808 mystery eruption Kuwae, a major eruption in 1452 Timeline of volcanism on Earth...

Decade Volcanoes
6 months ago

Decade Volcanoes ... Population at risk of lava/lahar/ash flows during eruption, not including potential tsunami nor distant ashfall Timeline of volcanism on Earth Newhall, Christopher...

History of Earth
4 months ago

History of Earth ... no oxygen. Much of the Earth was molten because of frequent collisions with other bodies which led to extreme volcanism. While the Earth was in its earliest...

Global Volcanism Program
5 months ago

Global Volcanism Program ... portal Prediction of volcanic activity Timeline of volcanism on Earth Volcanic explosivity index Volcano Number "Global Volcanism Program - Smithsonian...

Volcanic Explosivity Index
4 months ago

Volcanic Explosivity Index ... eruptions." Timeline of volcanism on Earth (mostly VEI-6, within 2 kya) List of large volcanic eruptions of the 19th century (≥ VEI-4) List of large volcanic...

Toba catastrophe theory
6 months ago

Toba catastrophe theory ... the early migration of humans Timeline of volcanism on Earth Wallace Line – Faunal boundary line separating the realms of Asia and Wallacea, a transitional...

List of large historical volcanic eruptions
5 months ago

List of large historical volcanic eruptions ... Extreme weather events of 535-536 List of largest volcanic eruptions List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions Timeline of volcanism on Earth Oppenheimer, Clive...

Supervolcano
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Supervolcano ... Hypothetical future events that could damage human well-being globally Timeline of volcanism on Earth Toba catastrophe theory – Supereruption 75,000 years ago that...

List of large volcanic eruptions
5 months ago

List of large volcanic eruptions ... This is a sortable summary of the pages Timeline of volcanism on Earth, List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the...

Kuwae
4 months ago

Kuwae ... events of 535–536 Timeline of volcanism on Earth Year Without a Summer 1465 mystery eruption "Kuwae". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution...

Novarupta
5 months ago
Types of volcanic eruptions
4 months ago
Volcanic winter
6 months ago
Eldgjá
5 months ago
Minoan eruption
5 months ago
Year Without a Summer
5 months ago
Santa María (volcano)
6 months ago
Timeline of the evolutionary history of life
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Bárðarbunga
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